08-01-2010, 12:19 PM
that would consume more time
than priorities leave available.
you are welcome to produce your own
from the chart my son constructed:
Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Y-chromosome_DNA_haplogroup)
a haplogroup (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup) is defined by differences in the non-recombining (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_recombination) portions of DNA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA) from the Y chromosome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y_chromosome) (called Y-DNA)
most recent common Y-ancestor (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-chromosomal_Adam)
Haplogroup A (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_A_(Y-DNA)) (M91, P97) Found in Africa, especially the Khoisan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khoisan), Ethiopia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopia)ns (especially Beta Israel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_Israel)) and Nilotes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nilotic)
A1a (M31, P82)
A2 (M6, M14, M23, M49, M71, M135, M141, M196, M206, M212, MEH1, P3, P4, P5, P36.1, PK1, P247, P248)
A3a (M28, M59)
A3b (M144, M190, M144, M190)
A3b1 (M51, P100, P291)
A3b1a (P71, P102)
A3b2 (M13, M63, M127, M202, M219, M305)
Haplogroup BT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_BT_(Y-DNA)) AKA Haplogroup YxA (M42, M94, M139, M299) Haplogroup BT split off from haplogroup A 70,000 years bp , probably originating in North East Africa from Y-chromosomal Adam. It contains all living human Y-DNA haplogroups except for A.
Haplogroup B (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_B_(Y-DNA)) (M60, M181, P85, P90) Haplogroup B is localized to sub-Saharan Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub-Saharan_Africa), especially to tropical forests of West-Central Africa. After Y-haplogroup A, it is the second oldest and one of the most diverse human Y-haplogroups. It was the ancestral haplogroup of modern Pygmies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmies) like the Baka (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baka_(Cameroon_and_Gabon)) and Mbuti (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mbuti), but also Hadzabe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadza_people) from Tanzania (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanzania), who are often mistakenly considered as a remnant of Khoisan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khoisan) people in East Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Africa).
B1 (M236, M288)
B2a1a (M109, M152, P32, P50)
B2a2a (P111, M43)
B2b (M112, M192, 50f2(P))
B2b2 (M115, M169)
B2b3 (M30, M129)
B2b4a (P8, P70)
B2b4b (MSY2.1, M211)
Haplogroup CT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_CT_(Y-DNA)) (M168, P9.1, M294) These mutations are present in all modern human male lines except A and B which are both found almost entirely in Africa. The most recent common male line ancestor (MRCA) of all CT men today probably pre-dated the "Out of Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Out-of-Africa)" migration, a migration in which some of his descendants participated. He is thought to have lived in Africa approximately 70,000 years before present, possibly in East Africa. This ancestor has been referred to as "Eurasian Adam (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_Adam)", "Australasian/Eurasian Adam" or "Out-of-Africa Adam", indicating his important status as a second major point in human patrilineal history.
Haplogroup CF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_CF_(Y-DNA)) (P143) Found outside of Africa, throughout Eurasia, Oceania (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceania), and the Americas
Haplogroup C (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_C_(Y-DNA)) (M130, M216) Found in Asia, Oceania, and North America
Haplogroup C1 (M8, M105, M131) Found in Japan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan)
Haplogroup C2 (M38) Found in Indonesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia), New Guinea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Guinea), Melanesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanesia), Micronesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micronesia), and Polynesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polynesia)
Haplogroup C3 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_C3_(Y-DNA)) (M217, P44) Found throughout Eurasia and North America, but especially among Mongols (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongols), Kazakhs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakhs), Tungusic peoples (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tungusic_peoples), Paleo-Siberians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleosiberian_languages), and Na-Déné-speaking peoples (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Na-Dene_languages)
Haplogroup C4 (M347) Found among the indigenous peoples of Australia
Haplogroup C5 (M356) Found in the Indian subcontinent
Haplogroup F (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_F_(Y-DNA)) (M89, M213) Found throughout Eurasia, Oceania, and the Americas
This ancient haplogroup may have first appeared in India, North Africa, the Levant, or the Arabian Peninsula as much as 50,000 years ago
It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion and rise to dominance appears to have been in South Asia
F1 (P91, P104) - Found in Sri Lanka (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lanka)
F2 (M427, M428) - In Lahu people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lahu_people) (China)
F3 (P96, M282) - In South Iran, South India (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_India), Armenia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenia) and rare in Netherlands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands)
F4 (P254) - In Sri Lanka
F5 (M481) - Found in Nepal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepal)
Haplogroup G (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_G_(Y-DNA)) (M201, P257) Found in Europe and Western Asia
The National Geographic Society (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Geographic_Society) places haplogroup G origins in the Middle East 10-20,000 years ago and presumes that people carrying the haplogroup took part in the spread of the Neolithic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic).
The oldest skeletons confirmed by ancient DNA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_DNA) testing as carrying haplogroup G date only from the 7th century C.E. and were found in present-day Bavaria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bavaria).
G1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_G1_(Y-DNA)) (M285, M342)
G1a (P20.1, P20.2, P20.3)
G1a1 (L201^, L202^, L203^)
G2a (P15, U5, L31/S149, L149^)
G2a1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_G2a1_(Y-DNA)) (P16.1, P16.2)
G2a1a (P18.1, P18.2, P18.3)
G2a3 (L30/S126, L32/S148)
G2a3a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_G2a3a_(Y-DNA)) (M406)
G2a3a1 (L14/S130/U16, L90/S133)
G2a3b1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_G2a3b1_(Y-DNA))* -
G2a3b1a1a (L13/S131/U13, L78)
G2a3b2 (L177.1^, L177.2^, L177.3^)
G2a4 (L224^, L225^)
G2c (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_G2c_(Y-DNA)) (M377, L72, L183^)
Haplogroup H (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_H_(Y-DNA)) (M69, M370) Found in the Indian subcontinent
believed to have arisen in India between 20,000 and 30,000 years ago. Its probable site of introduction is India since it is concentrated there. It seems to represent the main Y-haplogroup of the indigenous paleolithic inhabitants of India, because it is the most frequent Y-haplogroup of tribal populations (25-35%). On the other hand, its presence in upper castes is quite rare (ca. 10%)
H1a1 (M36, M197)
H1a3 (M39, M138)
H2a (P80, P314)
Haplogroup IJK (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_IJK_(Y-DNA)) (L15/S137, L16/S1380 Found in Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and East Africa
Haplogroup IJ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_IJ_(Y-DNA)) (M429/P125) Found in Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and East Africa
Haplogroup I (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_I_(Y-DNA)) (M170, M258, P19, P38, P212, U179) Found in Europe
founding event approximately contemporaneous with the onset of the last glacial maximum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_Glacial_Maximum) (LGM) approximately 21 thousand years ago. Some speculate the initial dispersion of this population corresponds to the diffusion of the Gravettian culture (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravettian).
represents nearly one-fifth of the population of Europe. It can be found in the majority of present-day European populations; the greatest density to be found in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Norway, Sweden, Serbia, Sardinia, Denmark and Germany. The haplogroup is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe.
I1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_I1_(Y-DNA))-M253 (L75, L80, L81, L118, L121, L123, L125, M253, M307.1/P203.1, M450/S109, P30, P40, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111) Typical of populations of Scandinavia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavia) and Northwest Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eastern Europe
I1b-M227 (M227) Appears to be limited to a marginally low frequency of approximately 1% among Slavic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples) and Uralic peoples (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uralic_languages) of Eastern Europe; also detected in a single Lebanese man
I2 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_I2_(Y-DNA))-M438 (L68, M438/P215/S31)
I2a1-M26 (L158, L159, M26) Typical of the population of the so-called "archaic zone" of Sardinia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sardinia); also found at low frequencies among populations of Southwest Europe, particularly in Castile (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castile_(historical_region)), Béarn (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9arn), and the Basque Country
I2a1a-M161 (M161) Very rare (1 in Puerto Rico)
I2a2-M423 (L178, M423)
I2a2a-L69.2 (L69.2(=T)/S163.2) Typical of the Balkan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkans) populations, especially the populations of Bosnia and Herzegovina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosnia_and_Herzegovina) and Croatia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romania); also found with high frequency in Moldavia and Romania (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romania) and high haplotype diversity values, but lower overall frequency, among the populations of Slovakia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia) and the Czech Republic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czech_Republic)
I2a2a1-P41.2 (P41.2/M359.2) Very rare (2 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1 in Turkey, 1 in England and 1 in Croatia)
I2a2b-L161 low frequency in Ireland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland) and Great Britain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Britain)
I2b-M436 (L35, L37, M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32)
I2b1-M223 (L34, L36, L59, M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117) Occurs at a moderate frequency among populations of Northwest Europe, with a peak frequency in the region of Lower Saxony (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_Saxony) in central Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany); minor offshoots appear in Moldavia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldavia) and Russia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia) (especially around Vladimir (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Oblast), Ryazan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryazan_Oblast), Nizhny Novgorod (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nizhny_Novgorod_Oblast), and the Republic of Mordovia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mordovia))
I2b1a-M284 (M284) Generally limited to a low frequency in Great Britain
I2b1a1-L126 (L126/S165, L137/S166)
I2b2-L38 (L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1)
Haplogroup J (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J_(Y-DNA)) (12f2.1, M304) Found in Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and East Africa
believed to have arisen roughly 30,000 years ago in Southwest Asia
J* - rarely found outside of the island of Socotra (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socotra), where it is quite frequent at 71.4%
J1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J1_(Y-DNA)) (M267)
most frequent in the Arabian Peninsula: Yemen(76%), Saudi (64%), Qatar (58%), and Dagestan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dagestan) (56%). J1 is generally frequent amongst Arab Bedouins (62%). It is also very common among others such as those of the southern Levant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levant), i.e. Palestinians (38.4%), Ashkenazi Jews (65%), in Algeria (35%), Iraq (28.2%), Tunisia (31%), Syria (30%), Egypt (20%), and the Sinai Peninsula. The frequency of Haplogroup J1 collapses suddenly at the borders of Arabic speaking countries with mainly non-Arabic speaking countries, such as Turkey (9%) and Iran (3.5%)
is also highly frequent among Jews, especially the Kohanim (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohen) caste (46%)
J1c3 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J1c3_(Y-DNA)) (P58)
J1c3a (M367, M368)
J1c3c (L92, L93)
J2 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J2_(Y-DNA)) (M172)
found in the highest concentrations in the Fertile Crescent (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertile_Crescent) and is found throughout the Mediterranean (including Southern Europe and North Africa), the Balkan peninsula, more specifically it is found in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Israel, Greece, Italy, the Balkans, and the Iberian Peninsula, and most frequently in Lebanese 30%, Iraqis 29.7%, Syrians 22.5%, Kurds 24%, Iranians 23%, Ashkenazi Jews 24%, Palestinian Arabs 16.8% and Sephardic Jews 29%
includes the Cohen Modal Haplotype (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-chromosomal_Aaron)
J2a1 (not currently in use by ISOGG)
J2a4 (DYS413=18, L26/S57, L27)
J2a4a (M47, M322)
J2a4b1 (M92, M260)
J2a4b2 (M163, M166)
(location under DYS445=7 uncertain)
J2a4h2 (M158) (location under L24 uncertain)
J2b (M12, M102, M221, M314)
Haplogroup K (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_K_(Y-DNA)) (M9) Found all over Eurasia, North Africa, Oceania, East Africa, and the Americas
an old lineage established approximately 40,000 years ago whose origins were probably in southwestern Asia.
K* Found in Macedonians=1.3%, Serbians=7.1, Croatians=0.9 and Herzegovinians=2.8
K1 (M147) Found with low frequency in South Asia
K3 (P79) Found in Melanesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanesia) and Polynesia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polynesia)
K4 (P261, P263) Found in Balinese (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balinese_people)
Haplogroup L (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_L_(Y-DNA)) (M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295) Found in the Indian subcontinent
This haplogroup is associated with South Asia. It has also been found at low frequencies among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and is believed to have first appeared approximately 30,000 years ago.
L1 (M27, M76) Found frequently in Indians, Sri Lankans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lanka), and Balochs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baloch_people), with a moderate distribution in other populations of Pakistan, southern Iran, and Arabia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabian_Peninsula)
L2 (M317) Found at low frequency in Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe
L3 (M357) Found frequently among Burusho (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burusho) and Pashtuns (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pashtun_people), with a moderate distribution among other populations in Pakistan, Georgia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_(country)), northern Iran, India, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia
L3a (PK3) Found frequently among Kalash (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalash)
Haplogroup M (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_(Y-DNA)) (P256) Found in Papua New Guinea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea)
believed to have first appeared approximately 10,000-30,000 years ago.
M1 (M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35)
M2 (M353, M387)
M3 (P117, P118)
Haplogroup NO (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_NO_(Y-DNA)) (M214)
The M214 mutation that defines Haplogroup NO occurred in a gamete (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamete) of a man who belonged to Haplogroup MNOPS and who probably lived somewhere in Eurasia east of the Aral Sea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aral_Sea) about 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.
Haplogroup N (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_N_(Y-DNA)) (M231) Found in Northeastern Europe and East Asia
Haplogroup N1 (LLY22g)
N1c1 (M178, P298)
Haplogroup O (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_O_(Y-DNA)) (M175) Found in Oceania and East Asia
O-M175 (M175, P186, P191, P196)
O-M50 (M50, M103, M110)
O-M88 (M88, M111)
O2b-SRY465 (SRY465, P49, 022454)
O3a-M324 (M324, P93, P197, P198, P199, P200)
O-M121 (M121, P27.2)
O-M113 (M113, M188, M209)
O-M117 (M117, M133)
Haplogroup P (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_P_(Y-DNA)) (92R7, M45, M74/N12, P27.1/P207)
It is believed to have arisen north of the Hindu Kush (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_Kush), in Siberia, Kazakhstan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_Kush), or Uzbekistan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_Kush), approximately 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.
P* Found in Hvar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hvar)
Haplogroup Q (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_Q_(Y-DNA)) (M242) Found in the Americas, and Northern Eurasia
Q* — Found with low frequency in India and Pakistan
Q1a (MEH2 — A 4000-year-old Saqqaq (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saqqaq_culture) individual belonged to this haplogroup
Q1a1 (M120, M265/N14) — Found with low frequency among Han Chinese (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Han_Chinese), Dungans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dungan_people), Hazaras, Japanese, Koreans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koreans), and Tibetans
Q1a2 (M25, M143) — Found with low to moderate frequency in Iran, Lebanon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebanon), and Turkey
Q1a3 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_Q1a3_(Y-DNA)) (M346) — Found with low frequency in India, Khanty (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khanty_people), Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Tibetans, and the United Arab Emirates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Arab_Emirates)
Q1a3a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_Q1a3a_(Y-DNA)) (M3) — Typical of indigenous peoples of the Americas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_of_the_Americas)
Q1a3a1 (M19) — Found among some indigenous peoples of South America (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_America), such as the Ticuna (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ticuna_language) and the Wayuu (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayuu)
Q1a3a3 (M199, P106, P292)
Q1a6 (M323) — Found in a significant minority of Yemenite Jews (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yemenite_Jews)
Q1b (M378) — Found in 5% of Ashkenazi Jews (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashkenazi_Jews) and with low frequency in Pakistan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazarewal) among samples of Hazarewal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazarewal) and Sindhis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindhi_people)
Haplogroup R (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R_(Y-DNA)) (M207/UTY2, M306/S1)
Found all over Eurasia, and parts of Africa
Y-chromosomes which possess the marker M207 (which defines Haplogroup R), but neither of the markers for its subgroups, are categorised as belonging to group R*. However, R* is exceedingly rare. It has been found in 10.3% (10/97) of a sample of Burusho (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burusho), 6.8% (3/44) of a sample of Kalash (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalash), and 1.0% (1/96) of a sample of Pashtuns (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pashtun_people) from northern Pakistan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan) in addition to 0.63% (4/638) of an ethnically mixed Pakistani sample.
Haplogroup R1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1_(Y-DNA)) (M173)
The Haplogroup R1* is very rare. Examples have been found in Turkey (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey), Pakistan and India (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India), but the highest frequency so far discovered is in Iran (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran)
Haplogroup R1a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1a_(Y-DNA)) (SRY10831.2 (SRY1532))
typical in parts of Eastern Europe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Europe#Definitions), Central Europe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Europe), South Asia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Asia#Geography) and Central Asia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Asia). R1a also has a significant presence in the rest of Europe, Siberia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberia), and the Middle East (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_East)
The highest levels of R1a (>50%) are found across the Eurasian Steppe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_Steppe): West Bengal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Bengal) Brahmins (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_Brahmins) (72%), and Uttar Pradesh (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uttar_Pradesh) Brahmins (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmin#Uttar_Pradesh), (67%) , the Ishkashimi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishkashimi_language) (68%), the Tajik (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tajik_people) population of Khojant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khujand) (64%), Kyrgyz (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyrgyz) (63.5%), Sorbs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sorbs) (63.39%), Poles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poles) (56.4%), Ukrainians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians) (50%) and Russians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians) (50%) and in the central India among the sahariai tribe of North india (72%).
R1a has been variously associated with:
the re-colonization of Eurasia during the Late Glacial Maximum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Glacial_Maximum).
the expansion of the Kurgan people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurgan_hypothesis) from the Pontic-Caspian steppe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontic-Caspian_steppe), which is associated with the spread of the Indo-European languages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_languages).
The Modern "Out of Africa theory" ties in with R1a1 (M17) that it "could have found his way initially from India or Pakistan, through Kashmir, then via Central Asia and Russia, before finally coming to Europe"..."as part of an archaeologically dated Paleolithic movement (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleolithic_Continuity_Theory#Historical_reconstru ction) from east to west 30,000 years ago."
R1a1 (M17, M198)
R1a1c (M64.2, M87, M204)
Haplogroup R1b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b_(Y-DNA)) (M343)
Typical of populations of Western Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eurasia and in parts of Africa
Haplogroup R1b is thought to have originated in Central Asia, the Middle East, or Iberia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iberian_Peninsula). It is prolific in Western Europe, where frequencies of 70% or more have been found in populations from Ireland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland), Spain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain), and the Netherlands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands), according to the Genographic Project (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genographic_Project) conducted by the National Geographic Society.
It is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, suggesting an ancient migration of R1b from the east. R1b is also found at various frequencies in many different populations near the Ural Mountains (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ural_Mountains) and Central Asia, its likely region of origin.
It is also found in North Africa where its frequency surpasses 10% in some parts of Algeria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algeria)
R1b1c (M269, S3, S10, S13, S17)
R1b1c6 (SRY2627, M167)
Haplogroup R2 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R2_(Y-DNA)) (M124)
Typical of populations of South Asia, with a moderate distribution in Central Asia and the Caucasus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caucasus)
At least 90% of R2 individuals are located in the Indian sub-continent. It is also reported in Caucasian and Central Asian populations.
R2 may have arisen in southern Central Asia, and its members migrated southward as part of the second major wave of human migration into India.
Haplogroup S (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_S_(Y-DNA)) (formerly K5) (M230,P202, P204)
Found in Papua New Guinea
S1d (M226) Found with low frequency in the Admiralty Islands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Admiralty_Islands) and along the Papua New Guinea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Admiralty_Islands) coast
Haplogroup T (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_T_(Y-DNA)) (formerly K2) (M70, M184/USP9Y+3178, M193, M272) Found in Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and East Africa
Haplogroup DE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_DE_(Y-DNA)) (M1, M145, M203)
Haplogroup D (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_D_(Y-DNA)) (M174)
Found in Tibet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibet), Japan, the Andaman Islands (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andaman_Islands)
Haplogroup D is believed to have originated in Asia some 60,000 years before present. While haplogroup D along with haplogroup E contains the distinctive YAP polymorphism (Haplogroup DE (Y-DNA)) (which indicates their common ancestry), no haplogroup D chromosomes have been found anywhere outside of Asia.
D* Found at high frequencies among Andaman Islanders and 8-65% in northeast Indian tribes.
Haplogroup D1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_D1_(Y-DNA)) (M15)
Found at high frequencies among Qiang people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qiang_people), 30% with a moderate distribution throughout East Asia
Haplogroup D2 (M55, M57, M64.1, M179, P37.1, P41.1 (M359.1), 12f2.2)
Found at high frequencies among the Ainu (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ainu_people), Japanese, and Ryukyuans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryukyuan_people). Frequencies: Ainu 87%, Okinawa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okinawa_Island) 56%, Honshu (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honsh%C5%AB) 37% and Kyushu (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ky%C5%ABsh%C5%AB) 28%
Haplogroup D3 (P99)
Found at high frequencies among Tibetans, with a moderate distribution among some other populations of southern Central Asia.The highest frequency are among the Pumi people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumi_people) 70%
Haplogroup E (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E_(Y-DNA)) (M40, M96)
Found in Africa and neighbouring areas
Haplogroup E1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1_(Y-DNA)) (P147)
Haplogroup E1a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1a_(Y-DNA)) (formerly E1) (M33, M132)
Haplogroup E1b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b_(Y-DNA)) (P177)
Haplogroup E1b1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1_(Y-DNA)) (formerly E3) (P2, DYS391p)
Haplogroup E1b1a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1a_(Y-DNA)) (formerly E3a) (M2) Found in sub-Saharan Africa
Haplogroup E1b1b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b_(Y-DNA)) (formerly E3b) (M215) Found in East Africa (Ethiopians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People_of_Ethiopia) and Somalis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somali_people)), North Africa (Berbers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berber_people) and Arabs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_people)), the Middle East, Europe (especially the Mediterranean (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediterranean_Basin) and the Balkans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkans))
E1b1b1a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)) (M78) is believed to have originated in Northeastern Africa (Egypt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt) and Libya (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libya)) some 17,300 - 20,000 years before present.
The highest frequencies have been found in the African region from Kenya (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenya), where it common amongst the Borana (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borana_Oromo) through the Horn of Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horn_of_Africa) and Sudan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan), up to Egypt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt). It is also common near the Mediterranean, for example amongst Moroccan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morocco) Arabs.
Outside this range, Guinea-Bissau (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea-Bissau) has shown a presence of this Haplogroup E subclade, where it has been tentatively attributed to trans-Saharan movements of people.
The European distribution, dominated by E1b1b1a2 (E-V13) except in Iberia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iberian_Peninsula), has a frequency peak centered in parts of the Balkans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkans) (up to almost 50%) and Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy) and declining frequencies evident toward western, central, and northeastern Europe.
E1b1b1a1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)#Undifferentiated_E-V12.2A_lineages) (V12)
E1b1b1a1a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)#E1b1b1a1a_.28E-M224.29) (M224)
E1b1b1a1b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)#E1b1b1a1b_.28E-V32.29) (V32)
E1b1b1a2 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)#E-V13_and_Ancient_Migrations) (V13, V36)
E1b1b1a3 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)#E1b1b1a3_.28E-V22.29) (V22)
E1b1b1a4 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)#E1b1b1a4_.28E-V65.29) (V65)
E1b1b1a5 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E1b1b1a_(Y-DNA)#E1b1b1a5_.28E-M521.29) (M521)
E1b1b1b2 (M183, M310, L19)
E1b1b1c (M123) accounts for approximately 10-12% of all male lines among both Ashkenazim (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashkenazi_Jews) and Sephardim (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sephardi_Jews)
Haplogroup E2 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E2_(Y-DNA))
believed to have originated in Africa some 45,000 - 50,000 years before present and is present throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, in East Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, and West Africa. The highest concentration of haplogroup E2 has been found among South African (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa) and Kenya (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenya)n Bantus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantu_peoples), with moderate frequencies of this haplogroup being observed in samples from Burkina Faso (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burkina_Faso), Hutu (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hutu) and Tutsi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutsi) from Rwanda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rwanda), Malagasy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malagasy_people) from Madagascar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madagascar), Fon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fon_people) from Benin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benin), Iraqw (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraqw) from Tanzania (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraqw), unidentified South African Khoisan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khoisan), Sudan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan), northern Cameroon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cameroon), and Senegal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senegal), as well as small frequencies in the Qatar (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qatar), Oman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oman), and Ethiopia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopia)n Oromo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oromo_people) samples.
E2b (M54, M90, M98)
please, share your embellishments.
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