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    Default Romanian Folk Costumes

    1. General Description of Romanian Folk Costumes.
    The Romanian Folk Costume (as any other folk costumes) is a combination of: (1) ethnicity or race; (2)geographical location and climate; (3) time period; and (4) economic possibilities. The dress itself, within a community, also reflects the (5) social status of the person who wears the dress (married, widow, etc.) or the occasion (wedding, funeral, etc.)

    1.1. In the good old days, one could tell, just by looking at someone's clothes, the place he was from and his race (nationality.) In a single city as Sibiu (Central Transylvania) one could easily tell apart Romanians from Saxons or Hungarians.

    1.2. On the other hand, because all Romanian folk costumes have certain common elements, until about one hundred years ago, one could recognize the Romanians living in Albania, or Bulgaria, or Greece, or Serbia. As a curiosity Ukrainan and NE Romanian folk costumes are similar. In Romania itself, people living in different regions have slightly different costumes each with its specific elements. Depending on who is counting, what is counting, and how the counting is done, in Romania could be between 40 and over 120 ethnographic zones.
    1.3. Also, it is accepted that between 1000 AD and mid 1800, the folk (peasant) dress in Europe changed very little, if at all. The economic development of the mid 1800's made easy for the peasants to acquire more fabrics, embroidery threads, etc. thus women spent less time weaving and more time embroidering. Also ease of travel and more communication erased some of the differences between the ethnographic zones. In Romania, after the 1950 the traditional folk dress is worn only at festive events. Thus, it is interesting to present folk outfits before and after 1900's.
    1.4. The Romanian Old Fashioned Folk Costumes were entirely made at home: home spun wool, cotton, hemp, silk (from home grown silk worms) and flex (in Romanian "in"). Quality and degree of ornamentation depended on one's skills and possibilities. As a curiosity "camasa iobageasca" didn't have any ornamentation. In Romanian "camasa" means shirt and "iobag" means serf.
    1.5. The costume itself or some ornamentation or accessories indicated if the person wearing it was married (less or more than a year single and not interested in marriage; single, but looking for a partner; engaged to be married; widow/er (less or more than a year.) Also there were special accessories for different holidays, events, or occasions: weddings, funerals, etc.

    2. Main characteristics of Romanian FolkCostumes.
    The Romanian Folk Costume main characteristics are: Predilection for white; Embroidery in geometric patterns; and Elaborate and highly symbolic headdresses.

    2.1. One main characteristic of the Romanian folk costumes is the predilection for white. Women have white blouses, white skirts, white scarves, even white coats. Aprons and vests are black or colored. Men have white shirts and white pants.

    2.2. All, absolutelly all, without exception, all traditional blouses and shirts have long sleeves. Only in the last 50 years, blouses have short sleeves.

    2.3. Embroidery in geometric patterns. Almost every piece of clothing has some kind of handwork, unusually embroidery in geometric pattern; of course, to a limited extent, flowers (or curved lines) are also present.

    2.4. Elaborate and highly symbolic headdresses. Nowadays, the Romanian folk costumes are generally limited to blouses, skirts, and aprons, perhaps vests for women; Shirts, pants, and sometimes vests or coats for man. The old style of elaborate and highly symbolic headdresses are totally disregarded.

    3. Elements of the Romanian Folk Costumes (Men, Women).

    3.1. Women's Romanian Old Fashion Folk Costume usually consists of a white blouse, white skirt, and one or two black or colorful aprons. Also some head cover; traditional shoes (opinci) and belt. For cold weather vests and coats.

    3.2. Men's Romanian Old Fashion Folk Costume consists of a a white, large, mid-thigh length shirt; white pants, and belt. Also some head cover; traditional shoes (opinci) and belt. For cold weather vests and coats.

    4. Specific characteristics of Romanian FolkCostumes, by Ethnographic Regions..
    Regarding Romanian folk costumes, there are 7 ethnographic regions. Six ethnographic regions in romania proper and one outside present-day Romanian borders. (see map of ethnographic regions.) We are presenting about 90 ethnographic zones. Actually, there is not a set number of ethnographic zones in Romania and each "expert" will have a different combination presented, the total number being between 40 and 120.

    Banat
    Timis,
    Caras-Severin

    West Plains
    Arad,
    Bihor,
    Oas

    Transylvania

    Wallachia
    Oltenia,
    Muntenia

    Moldova
    Basarabia, Bucovina, Moldova

    Dunare
    Baragan Dobrogea,

    Aromanians
    (Balkans)




    1. Transylvania or Ardeal (Sibiu, Somesul Superior, Hateg, and Muntii Apuseni.) The main characteristic of this region is the fact that women wear two aprons, called zadii, c[tr`n\e or oprege; the aprons are narrow, the color is black or black and red.

    2. West Plains or Câmpiile de vest (Câmpia Muresului, Câmpiile Crisurilor Negru-Alb-Repede, and Câmpia Somesului Inferior). The main characteristic of this region is that women wear only one front apron, called zadie or c[tr`n\[. The aprons are very wide and very colorful.

    3. Banat (Lunca Timisului, Caras-Severin.) The main characteristic of this region is that women wear two aprons, called opreg. One or both aprons have long fringes.

    4. Wallachia or Tara Româneasca (Oltenia and Muntenia). The main characteristic of this region is the fact that women wear two overlapping aprons. The aprons have different sizes and designs. The front, the narrow apron is called zavelca. The back apron is wide, with creases and is called vâlnic. Sometimes in the summer girls wear two "zavelca." In the winter women wear one apron, a heavier versions on the vâlnic, called "pesteman" and "fota creata," wide, pleated,wrapped all around, looking almost like a regular skirt.

    5. Dunare, the region along the inferior course of River Danube: Baragan, Dobrogea and South Moldova. The main characteristic of this region is the fact that women wear two narrow aprons called pestelca. The aprons are similar in size, but different in design.

    6. Moldova: Moldova, Basarabia, Bukovina. The main characteristic of this region is that women wear only one, wrapped around apron, called "fota."

    7. Balkans, or Romanians who live outside the present-day Romanian borders.

    a) In this vast region there are Romanians who live close-by the Romanian borders and their costumes are similar to those of their Romanian neighbors. Thus Romanians from Voijvodina or Banatu' Sarbesc (Serbian Banat) have costumes very similar to Romanians from Romanian Banat. Romanians who live in Timoc or Timok, Serbia have folk costumes similar to Caras-Severin. Romanians who live in Timoc or Timok, Bulgaria have folk costume similar to Oltenia .

    b) Romanians also live in Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, and Macedonia:
    – Istro-Romanians live in Istria, Croatia.
    – Macedo-Romanians or Aromânii live in Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia.
    – Megleno Romanians live in Bulgaria, Greece, and Macedonia.

    The main characteristic of this region is the fact that women wear only one apron, called poale, and condusa, a long, sleeveless vest. Other elements of the Balkan's folk costumes are:
    – Fustane, blouse and skirt together, sort of a dress with very little embroidery
    – Condusa, a long, sleeveless vest.
    – Scurtac, waist long vest.
    – Libade, a jacket with short sleeves.
    – Poala, apron
    – Hrisafi or Pirpodzi, socks, made of many different colored wool thread.
    – Paftale, two metallic "buckles" at the ends of the belt.
    – Tipunea, heavy winter coat..
    – Sarica, heavy, sleeveless winter coat...

    5. Romanian Folk Costumes: Tables, Lists.

    Romanian Folk Costumes by ethnographic regions
    By 7 regions with 16 sub-regions and 97 ethnographic zones
    (prezentarea a 7 regiuni folcorice, impartite in 16 sub-refiuni si 97 zone etnografice )

    1. ARDEAL or TRANSYLVANIA
    – Sibiu
    – Somes (Somesul Superior)
    – Hateg
    – Apuseni

    2. CAMPIILE de VEST (West Plains)
    – Arad, Câmpia Muresului
    – Bihor, Câmpia Crisurilor
    – Câmpia Somesului Inferior

    3. BANAT
    – Timis
    – Caras-Sverin

    4. TARA ROMANEASCA(Wallachia)
    – Oltenia
    – Muntenia

    5. DUNARE
    – Baragan
    – Dobrogea
    – Moldova de Sud

    6. MOLDOVA
    – Bucovina
    – Moldova
    – Basarabia

    7. BALCANI or Romanians outside the present day Romanian borders
    – Daco-Romani: Serbia, Bulgaria, Ucraina
    – Macedo-Romani (aromani or vlahi) ]n Albania, Bulgaria, Grecia, Macedonia, Serbia
    – Istro-Romani (istro-romani or vlahi) in Istria (Croatia)
    – Megleni-Romani (or vlasi) in Macedonia, Grecia, Bulgaria.




    Romanian Folk Costumes by ethnographic regions and zones
    Region sub-region Ethnographic zone


    ARDEAL or Transilvania




    Sibiu 1. Sibiu
    Podisul Secaselor (Sebes)
    2. Valea Hartibaciului
    3. Fagaras or Tara Oltului
    4. Tarnave
    5. Barsa or Tara Barsei
    6. Alba-Sebes-Aiud
    7. Tara Lovistei
    Topolog (19 century as Sibiu; 20 century as Valcea+Arges)

    Somes
    8a Cluj or Dealurile Clujului
    8b. Campia Clujului
    9. Lapus
    10. Maramures
    11. Mures + Valea Gurghiului
    Tulghes-Izvorul Muresului-Ciuc (In Transylvania, but similar to Moldova)
    12. Nasaud + Prundu Bargaului
    13 Huedin (or Meses)
    Depresiunea Calata (Or Kalotszeg)
    14. Salaj
    15. Somes
    Hateg 16. Hateg - Sarmisegetuza
    17. Hateg - Lunca Cernii
    18. Hateg - Meria
    19. Hunedoara
    20. Orastie
    21. Petrosani – Valea Jiului
    22. Petrosani-Momarlani (Valea Jiul-de-Vest)
    23. Padureni
    Apuseni 24. Ampoi, Valea Ampoilui; Zlatna
    Mocanii de Turda (pr Aries)
    25. Aries (Valea Ariesului; Salciua)
    25a. Aries (Lupsa)
    26. Beius (transition between Bihor & Apuseni),
    27. Bucium-Abrud
    28. Tara Motilor--Vidra
    29. Tara Zarandului-Brad
    30. Tara Zarandului-Halmagiu
    Campiile de Vest
    or
    WEST PLAINES


    (câmpie=plain) Arad
    Campia Muresului
    31. Arad ( cu "Opreg" or 2 oprege)
    32. Arad (Orasenesc)
    33. Arad ("Zadie" or 1 zadie)
    Bihor
    Campiile Crisurilor
    34. Ineu (Bihor: Campia Crisului Alb)
    35. Meziad (Bihor: Campia Crisului Negru)
    36. Alesd (Bihor: Campia Crisului Repede)
    37. Valea Barcaului & Crasnei
    Oas
    Campia Somesului Inferior
    38. Codru (Zone Codru-Chioar-Oas)
    39. Chioar (Zone Codru-Chioar-Oas)
    40. Oas (Campia Somesului)
    BANAT Timis 41. Timis
    42. Buzias
    43a. Deta-Ciacova
    43b. Jebel-Buzias-Lugoj, or The Golden Triangle
    44. Lipova
    45. Faget
    46. Lugoj
    47. Sannicolau
    Caras-Severin 48. Almaj (Carbunari)
    49. Almaj (Valea Nerei)
    50. Caras (Oravita)
    51. Clisura Dunarii
    52. Severin
    53. Valea Bistrei,
    TARA ROMANEASCA
    or
    Valahia Oltenia 54. Valcea
    55. Horezu
    56. Gorj, + Tismana
    57. Mehedinti + Plaiul Closanilor
    58. Olt + Campia Boianului
    59. Romanati + Slatina
    60. Dolj
    Tara Romaneasca
    or
    Valahia / Wallahia 61. Arges, + Topolog
    Topolog (19 century as Sibiu; 20 century as Valcea+Arges)
    62. Bran
    63. Buzau
    64. Dambovita
    65. Ilfov
    66. Muscel
    67. Prahova
    68. Ramnic
    69. Teleorman
    70. Vlasca
    DUNARE Baragan,

    71. Ialomita
    72. Braila

    Dobrogea,
    73. Tulcea(or Macin)North Dobrogea
    74. Babadag (Dobrogea Central)
    75. Ostrov (South Dobrogea)
    76. Macedo-Romani or Aromani
    77. Megleno-romani (Cerna, judetul Tulcea)
    Moldova de Sud 78. Covurlui (azi Galti)
    79. Prut
    MOLDOVA Bucovina 80. Suceava+ Falticeni
    81. Campulung Moldovenesc
    82. Dorna ( or Vatra Dornei)
    83. Homor (or Gura Humorului)
    84. Radauti
    Moldova

    85. Bacau
    86. Botosani + Siret +Jijia
    87. Iasi
    88. Tulghes-Izvorul Muresului-Ciuc (In geographically in Transylvania
    but ethnographically similar to Moldova )
    89. Neamt + Valea Bistritei
    90. Roman
    91. Vrancea
    Basarabia 92 Basarabia
    BALCANI Daco-romani 93. Romani in Banatul Sarbesc
    94. Romani in Cadrilater (South Dobrogea, Bulgaria)
    & Romani in North Bulgaria Nord, along Danube river
    95. Romani in Timoc (Vidin, Bulgaria)
    96. Romani in Timoc (Negotin, Serbia)
    Macedo-romani
    Macedo-Romani (Aromani) in Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Gerecia, Albania (76)
    Megleno-romani Megleno-Romani in Romania (Tulcea) (77)
    Macedonia. Grecia, Bulgaria
    Istro-romani 97. Istro-Romani (in Istria, Croatia)
    Original article here:
    http://www.romanianmuseum.com/Romania/RomaniaFolk.html



    Quote Originally Posted by Tabiti
    Hellene of Troy or Sabinae of Apricity

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    Nice work, Sabi! Now, do you ever wear any slightly modernised versions of these yourself? On holidays or anything?


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    Quote Originally Posted by Osweo View Post
    Nice work, Sabi! Now, do you ever wear any slightly modernised versions of these yourself? On holidays or anything?

    I wish I had one... I think my great grandmother(paternal line) had such clothes(I'll have to try look for it. The only impediment is, that my great-grandmother's house is in another, further, county)... You see, people living in Bucharest have little, if anything to do with folk costumes... Even on holidays, they do not wear our traditional clothes
    Habbits and tradition are better guarded in the countryside, where, on holidays they dress up with folk costumes and they carry out rituals that they have learnt from our ancestors.
    Quote Originally Posted by Tabiti
    Hellene of Troy or Sabinae of Apricity

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    Traditional costumes are seldom worn in our country, presently... You might see some people wear them at festivals or other special occasions. The villagers from Old Maramureș wear their costumes during religious holidays, weddings or other such events. It's a rare sight, sadly...

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    Default Traditional costume in Romania

    The structure of Romanian traditional clothing has remained unchanged throughout history and can be traced back to the earliest times. The basic garment for both men and women is a shirt or chemise, which is made from hemp, linen or woollen fabric. This was tied round the waist using a fabric belt, narrow for women and wider for men. The cut of this basic chemise is similar for men and women. In the past those worn by women usually reached to the ankles while men's shirts were shorter and worn over trousers or leggings made from strips of fabric. Women always wear an apron over the chemise. This was initially a single piece of cloth wrapped round the lower part of their bodies and secured by a belt at the waist, as is still seen in the east and south east of Romania. In Transylvania and the south west of Romania this became two separate aprons, one worn at the back and one at the front.

    Men's traditional clothing throughout Romania comprises a white shirt (cămașă), white trousers, hat, belt, waistcoat and or overcoat. Local differences are indicated by shirt length, type of embroidery, trouser cut, hat shape, or waistcoat decoration. In most areas shirts are worn outside trousers, which is the older style. This is a basic Balkan man's costume largely uninfluenced by fashions from west or east. Hungarian and Saxon men living in Romania wear trousers with a more modern cut often made of dark material rather than white. This reflects their closer ties, and more frequent communication, with the west.

    The outer garments worn by both men and women are similar, the main differences being in cut and decoration which depend mainly on the region of provenance. These garments are usually made of sheepskin, or felted woollen fabric, and decorated with leather appliqué and silk embroidery.

    Traditional clothing worn on workdays and festivals used to be similar, the main difference being that the festive dress, especially those worn for weddings was more richly embroidered. In the past the headwear worn by the bride was especially ornate with specific local styles. In poorer areas basic clothing with little or no embroidery has always been worn.

    The various pieces of costume have gone out of use at different times during the 20th century. The first item to disappear in many areas were leather peasant sandals (opinci), although these could be seen in poorer villages again in the years just after the communist regime fell. In most rural areas men's traditional trousers were replaced by modern factory made trousers by mid century and in the post communism years jeans has become universally common. Traditional over garments became an expensive luxury, new garments only being purchased by people living in the very wealthy villages. More recently the traditional jacket makers in many areas have died with few new artisans being trainer to carry on their craft.

    However if you look closely in the more remote areas some older people still wear items of traditional clothing. This can be for women a gathered black skirt or dark wraparound with a blouse of local cut either with or without a leather waistcoat. In Oaş and Maramureş even young girls often wear the local fashion costume on Sundays. This is normally made from brightly coloured material, in Oaş a dress, in Maramureş a skirt. Added to the local costume is the latest fashion in blouses and footwear such as white lacy blouses in Maramureş and platform shoes or stilettos, in both regions. Men usually have "western " trousers or jeans but may have a local shirt, or local shaped hat, although unfortunately the universal trilby is fast replacing these. Certain items of costume, specific to occupations, are still worn, for example men working in the forestry industry wear the wide leather belts (chimir), usually now over a T-shirt and jeans. Men's traditional fur hats (caliciulă) are still worn in winter in rural areas, and women usually wear a printed woollen scarf, and often a traditional straw hat over this when working in the fields in the summer.

    Source

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    Default Romanian peasant footwear

    Peasant sandals - Opinci


    Opinci, Maramureș, 2002

    The oldest type of footwear is peasant sandals (opinci) worn with woollen or felt foot wraps (obiele) or woollen socks (caltuni). Evidence for this style of footwear can be seen on a clay foot found in Turdaş, dating from around 2500B. Opinci were worn throughout Romania and over a wide area of south and east Europe being known as opanke (Serbia), Tservuli (Bulgaria), opinci (Macedonia) etc. Opinci are made of a single rectangle of cow, ox or pig hide gathered round the foot in various ways. Two main types are found in Romania but with numerous zonal variations. The first type of opincă is cut out of one rectangular piece of leather with front edges uniformly pleated. The other is cut out of a rectangle of leather with angled edges. The head of the rectangle is then folded in half and the two sides are sewn together to make the 'gurguiu' or peak of the opincă. The sides of the rectangle are folded along the edge to enclose the heel and fit to the shape of the foot. Opinci worn in mountain regions usually had higher gurguiu while those worn in the plain were lower. Opinci were tied to the feet using one or more nojită (narrow strips of leather or strings made of goats or horsetail hair which is usually died black although white is used in Moldavia). Opinci were sometimes decorated with stamped patterns (repoussé) or with tintacks or appliqué strips of leather. Many 18th and 19th century pictures show Romanian peasants wearing opinci, though by the 20th century this form of footwear had become less common. F B Florescu, in her book on Romanian opinci said that this form of footwear had completely disappeared by 1957 (Florecu 1957). However opinici can still be seen now in poorer rural areas today, although they are sometimes made of man made fabrics such as tyre inner tube or plastic are sometimes instead of leather!

    Foot wraps - Obiele


    Foot wraps, Maramures 2002


    Foot wraps, Republic of Moldova, 2007

    Oabia (pl. Obiele) (Bulgarian navoi) used to be were worn with opinci. These were rectangular pieces of white woollen cloth which were wrapped round the feet and legs and held in place by hemp cords. In some areas these were very thick and so became like a padded "bootleg". Obiele were sometimes decorated with black (or occasionally red) stripes. In south-west Oltenia, south Transylvania and Banat the cloth was woven from brightly coloured wool on 4 heddles. The most vivid colured obiele come from Banat where red, white, and navy blue fabric is used for for young or black or white for older people. The method of wrapping them round the leg also indicates age, young people wearing them with the tops turned over outside.


    Foot wraps, Banat, 2007

    Decorated leg wraps or spats (ghetra, pl. ghetre) are worn by căluşer dancers in southern Transylvania. These are made of pieces of woollen cloth wrapped round the lower leg (like obiele), and decorated with coloured embroidery and rows of bells.


    Calușeri, ghetre, Sibiu, 1988

    Călţuni / cioareci / toloboni / cioci are worn by women in many regions in winter in place of obiele. These were made of woollen fabric (dimie) and were a type of sock or stocking. The piece of fabric was folded and sewn along the foot. They can be knee length or reach over the knee in which case they take the place of the obiele. These are decorated according to local fashion. They are also worn by men in north Moldavia and Muntenia, central and east Transylvania and in this case called tureaca/ tureatcă. Cioareci are thought to derive from tight woollen leggings called tureci worn in certain mountain regions. In certain regions Călţuni are made of red wool and are decorated on the edges.

    Knitted Woollen socks - Ciorapi

    Hand knitted woollen socks are now worn with opinci in the majority of regions by both men and women. They are usually crochered or knitted using 5 knitting needles in white wool with fancy stitches. Knitted socks were often also worn under obiele. The Saxon village of Vişcri in Transylvania now specialises in producing knitted socks which they sell to tourists.

    Boots - Cizme, bocanci, ghete


    Men's boots, Transylvania, 1991

    Boots were introduced during Ottoman times, and were worn first by the upper classes, only becoming available to the richer peasants in the 19th century. Initially the Hungarians in Transylvania banned the Romanians from wearing boots, but boots are now widely worn by men especially in west and north Transylvania and also by women in some regions of Transylvania such as Ţara Oaşului, Sibiu, Făgăraş and Hungarian Kalotaszeg.


    Women's boots, Oaș, 1997

    Men's boots calf length boots were made of black leather (cizme). Heavy military style (hob nailed) ankle boots with thick soles (bocanc, pl. bocanci) were worn in the Hungarian army, and women in Sibiu and Făgăraş wear a lighter low heeled version of these bocani. A low boot laced at inner or outer side called 'cepok' is worn by the Szekelys. There was a fashion for women's boots to be made in red leather in the early 20th century.


    Women's boots, Mediaș, 1998

    Dance groups now wear specially made lightweight boots for all regions.

    In most areas now fashion footwear such as stilettos, platform shoes or trainers are now usually worn with costume!

    Source

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    Yeah, you can say that traditional costumes mainly now a day’s wear on special occasion like festival, national presence performance. Like in USA they celebrate their independence day and wear many types of traditional costumes. In some countries people wear these costumes on marriages also.

    Girl costumes

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    @vandersar: what is the folk costume in USA, again?
    Quote Originally Posted by Tabiti
    Hellene of Troy or Sabinae of Apricity

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    Default Traditionals clothes of Romania

    Bună Ziua!

    I'm actually looking for some pics of traditionals clothes in România, from differents historics regions, but it's really hard to find it.

    Did some one have some pics, or a website who show a large selections of pics of Romanian's traditionals clothes ?

    Mulțumesc !

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