''Es pas tard
son encar aicí
nòsti chamins d’un viatge
l’èrba, lhi roieras
per lo boscatge
lhi champs a l’adrech
e lhi muralhets cubèrts
Wikipedia in Catalan (La Viquipèdia) is the second oldest wikipedia, after the English one. It was created 11 years 2 days ago.
Norway was first gathered as a single kingdom in 872 AD.
Finns drink a lot of coffee.
The modifications to the 1814 Constitution that became the basis to the present Dutch system of government (constitutional monarchy) were proclaimed on 3 november 1848. After 1848 there have been several more revisions:
- 1887 (first steps towards universal male suffrage),
- 1917 (universal male suffrage for all men older the 23 and "passive voting rights" (electability) for women. Proportional representation replaces the previously used majority system and religious education receives the same rights to be financed by the government as public education.
- 1922. Women now have full voting rights after they had already received it by law in 1919. The Netherlands East Indies, Surinam and Curaçao are no longer mentioned as "colonies" but as parts of the Dutch Realm.
- The constitution now allows for provisions to be made for conscientious objectors and puts the right to declare war firmly in the hands of parliament.
- 1938. It now becomes possible to appoint a minister without portfolio. And to create statutory corporations for certain professions and businesses where private employers organisations and trade unions are being represented like for instance the SER. This is the first step towards the Dutch Polder Model.
- 1946. It now becomes possible to send conscripted troops to the Indies. Indonesia becomes independent in 1949. In 1948 the possibility of transferral sovereignty over the Netherlands East Indies to Indonesia is passed in the constitution.
- 1954. The relations with the remaining realms (Netherlands Antilles, Suriname and Netherlands New Guinea) are arranged within the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
- 1956. A new office is created (staatssecretaris), there are some modifications in simplifying the arrangements to sign international treaties and the number of parliamentarians is expanded from 100 to 150 in the Lower House and from 50 to 75 in the Upper House.
- 1963. Transfer of Netherlands New Guinea to Indonesia.
- 1971. The voting age is lowered to 18. It now becomes possible to arrange by law who is a member of the Royal Family and who is not.
The general revision of 1983.
- General freedom of speech is assured. (yes right..)
- A ban on hate speech and discrimination (so far for freedom of speech)
- The personal integrity (the sanctity of the house and ownership over one's own body) are protected.
- The government becomes responsible for employment, social security and the environment.
- Ministerial responsibility no longer has legal repercussions - meaning that ministers can no longer be held legally responsible.
- The death penalty is outlawed.
- Amsterdam now officially becomes the capital of the Netherlands.
- The age of electability is lowered to 18.
- Members of the Upper House are now elected at the same moment for a period of 4 years.
- The members of the Upper and Lower House now vote for their own chairmen (before that they used to be appointed by the Crown).
- It becomes possible for resident foreigners to vote in municipal elections.
- The introduction of the National Ombudsman is now set in the constitution.
- Suriname is now no longer constitutionally a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (having become independent in 1975).
The political proposals as done by the Cals-Donner Commission during the 1970s in regards to a more direct democracy are not adopted.
After 1983 there were some more minor revisions amongst which (in 1987,1999, 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2008):
- There are more possibilities for the police to enter a home without permission from the owner. Some of the legal barriers have been dismantled.
- The draft is suspended.
- The armed forces can be send abroad for "peacekeeping operations".
- The national ombudsman now gets a fully constitutional bases.
So now that we know where the problems are.. we now know what we should do to fix them.
‘Quel autre pays ou l’on puisse jouir d’une liberté si entière’
(In welk ander land kan men genieten van een zo totale vrijheid)
René Descartes over de Nederlandse Republiek.
There are currently 2 users browsing this thread. (0 members and 2 guests)