"O mar com fim será grego ou romano: O mar sem fim é português."
Indeed. However most Africans as I said were males (~75%) with short life expectancies, they were for the most part slaves in a foreign land, and native americans were in a small number when the whole size of the country is taken into account. Diseases killed a lot of the native americans. The Portuguese and their descendants in Brazil controlled the territory and they had much greater access to the women, European, African or Native American. This way their contribution was bigger than just an examination of numbers would lead one to believe. Anyway, as I said the number of Portuguese who came here during our colonial period was substantial, no other South American country received as many as we did, and settlements by couples were also done both in Southern Brazil as well as in the North (Pará and Maranhão), and elsewhere too, though in a more random way. It is true that the majority were men and this is why the Brazilian population as a whole has multiple ancestries. However the Portuguese contribution was far greater than what it is told in mainstream media abroad or realized by many here (genetic studies and individual DNA test results clearly show it). This is just trying to say what happened.
As you pointed out, I am Brazilian, and I have a particular interest in knowing exactly what happened. Though the situation is really complex, and I wouldn't claim certainty, what I have said is the most likely scenario IMO.
This was due to the fact those territories were mostly colonised by young men, adventurers who seek fortune to one day return and not by families like it was done in the USA who always attracted much more european immigrants for several reasons (shorter travel, better climate, less mosquitos and tropical diseases etc.).
For instance until the early XVIII century the portuguese women stayed in the country, travel to those territories was not considered adequate for a woman, only few families left for the Americas (some of those families were new-christians). It was a colonizaion done mostly by young men who runned the plantantions with the whip and obviously they engaged in sexual relations with the slaves or even domesticated indians.
During the the 18th century in the gold rush period the situation started to change as more families travelled for Brazil, still were mostly men.
In the 19th century, especially after the departure of the portuguese royal family and court to Brazil in 1808 fleeing the Napoleonic invasions the type of colinization changed, european families started to immigrate to Brazil and after the independence of Brazil in 1822 (wich was ruled by portuguese monarchs until the end of the 19th century) it was promoted the process of "whitening Brazil" and 4 million european immigrants were brought during the 19th and early 20th century, they established mostly in the south and south-east of the country.
About the racial laws the Iberian countries had the most rigid racial laws in Europe for many centuries, the process of the "Limpieza del Sangre" or "Estatutos de Limpeza do Sangue" respectively in Spain and Portugal was implemented by the Inquisition and they forbade the marriage of old-christians with other races or religions including new-christians (jews converted to catholicism), the rest of the jews were expelled. Even before that there ware similar laws the inquisition just took them much further. This endured was until the end of the Inquisition circa 1820-period of the liberal revolutions.
In the colonies the statutes of those laws were also appliable and was forbidden the mixing with the "infected races" as it was written in documents from that time, altough in reality mixing with slaves obviously happened mainly due to the lack of white women in the colonies.
That was the colonizing process now if you mean about what is happening right now, the race mixing is much higher in Britain and the USA and so is the non-white immigration.
Sorry but the comparison is not correct, Mexico has only around 8% whites, the others are mostly mestizos or native-americans.Mexico and Brazil have looked like for centuries what America may never look like.
Brazil on the other hand still has a significant number of whites, offcialy is 45% but since i know very well the country i would say that only about 25-30% are of pure european ancestry (the others considered white are just light mestizos like many of the latinos in the USA), but 25-30 % of a population of 200 million is around 50-60 million and that makes the white population in Brazil comparable to France or Italy, only the USA, Russia and Germany have a larger number of whites than Brazil.
Besides there are also ex-spanish colonies that are still overwhelmingly white, like Argentina that was 90% white 2 decades ago, now it's around 65%-70% because the mestizos breed much faster and there has been a huge immigration from countries like Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay that are mostly mestizos or pure amerindians. Uruguay is still more than 80% white.
Many Brazilians, f.e, are descendants of this couple: Estevão Ribeiro Baião Parente & Madalena Fernandes Feijó de Madureira (from Oporto). I am. They arrived in XVI century Brazil.
Duarte Coelho colonized Pernambuco with his family, relatives and families from Northern Portugal:
http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duarte_Coelho_PereiraChegando à feitoria de Pernambuco em 9 de março de 1535, vinha acompanhado da mulher, Dona Brites de Albuquerque, do cunhado Jerônimo de Albuquerque, e alentada parentela, além de famílias do norte de Portugal. Vinham tentar a sorte no desenvolvimento da agroindústria canavieira.
Hundreds of Azorean couples (thousands of people) settled in Pará, Maranhão and Ceará (North and Northeast Brazil), starting colonization in those places, in the early XVII century:
http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hist%C3...281583-1641.29Desde 1617 que a colonização do estado autónomo do Maranhão, Pará e Ceará se tinha iniciado com a ida de centenas de casais açorianos, numa fuga à fome e à miséria.
This is was a contemporary writer, the Portuguese Jesuit Pero Corrêa, wrote in 1561 from São Paulo:
(Taunay, chapter XXIV, São Paulo in the XVI century).the converted native american women are models not only to their relatives, but also to the many Portuguese women here
A few other examples:
Antonio Vaz Guedes came to Espírito Santo in the XVI century with his wife Margarida Correa. They settled in the land and left descendants.
Garcia Rodrigues came with his wife Isabel Velho (both from Oporto) to XVI century São Paulo. Millions of Brazilians are their descendants, including myself.
Domingos Luís, o Carvoeiro, a Portuguese settler of XVI São Paulo (also an ancestor of mine) got married with Branca Cabral.
Simão Jorge (from Viana do Minho) came with his wife Agostinha Rodrigues (Jorges Velhos in Genealogia Paulistana). They left descendants.
Antonio de Mariz got married with Isabel Velha (Portuguese woman) in ~1560 in Rio de Janeiro (see Rheingantz, v. 2, page 519). They left descendants.
Henrique Fernandes got married with Antonia Freire (from Portugal) in early Rio de Janeiro (see Rheingantz, v. 2, p. 35). They left descendants.
Baltazar de Castro got married with Maria Rodrigues, she was from Lisbon, in early Rio de Janeiro (page 329, v. 1, Rheingantz). They left descendants.
A few women who settled São Paulo in the XVI century listed by Taunay in "São Paulo in the XVI century":
Felipa Vicente, wife of João do Prado;
Isabel de Góes, married with Antônio Raposo;
Anna Proença, wife of Pedro Taques;
Maria Castanho, from Monte-Mor, married with Antonio de Alvarenga;
Suzana Rodrigues, ancestors of the Tenório and Arzão families;
Felipa Gago, one of the first Portuguese women to come to São Paulo, wife of Henrique da Cunha;
Paula Camacho (from Viana);
Last edited by curupira; 04-02-2012 at 11:06 PM.
Afonso de Albuquerque, probably the greatest Portuguese general, encouraged his soldiers to marry the locals in India after he conquered Goa and Malacca, for example. This is the origin of the Kristiangs.
The Marquis of Pombal also encouraged miscigenation in the colonies with the Amerindians. In the law that created the "Diretório dos Índios" he said so:
88 Entre os meios, mais proporcionados para se conseguir tão virtuoso, útil, e santo fim, nenhum é mais eficaz, que procurar por via de casamentos esta importantíssima união. Pelo que recomendo aos Diretores, que apliquem um incessante cuidado em facilitar, e promover pela sua parte os matrimônios entre os Brancos, e os Índios, para que por meio deste sagrado vínculo se acabe de extinguir totalmente aquela odiosíssima distinção, que as nações mais polidas do mundo abominaram sempre, como inimigo comum do seu verdadeiro, e fundamental estabelecimento.
89 Para facilitar os ditos matrimônios, empregarão os Diretores toda a eficácia do seu zelo em persuadir a todas as Pessoas Brancas, que assistirem nas suas Povoações, que os Índios tanto não são de inferior qualidade a respeito delas, que dignando-se Sua Majestade de os habilitar para todas aquelas honras competentes às graduações dos seus postos, conseqüentemente ficam logrando os mesmos privilégios as Pessoas que casarem com os ditos índios; desterrando-se por este modo as prejudicialíssimas imaginações dos Moradores deste Estado, que sempre reputaram por infâmia semelhantes matrimônios.
90 Mas como as providências, ainda sendo reguladas pelos ditames da reflexão, e da prudência, produzem muitas vezes fins contrários, e pode suceder, que, contraídos estes matrimônios, degenere o vínculo em desprezo, em discórdia a mesma união; vindo por este modo tranformar-se em instrumentos de ruína os mesmo meios que deverão conduzir para a concórdia; recomendo muito aos Diretores, que apenas forem informados de que algumas Pessoas, sendo casadas desprezam os seus maridos, ou suas mulheres, por concorrer neles a qualidade de Índios, o participe logo ao Governador do Estado, para que sejam secretamente castigados, como fomentadores das antigas discórdias, e perturbadores da paz, e da união pública.
91 Deste modo acabarão de compreender os Índios com toda a evidência, que estimamos as suas pessoas; que não desprezamos as suas alianças, e o seu parentesco; que reputamos, como próprias as suas utilidades; e que desejamos, cordial, e sinceramente conservar com eles aquela recíproca união, em que se firma, e estabelece a sólida felicidade das Repúblicas.
Pombal also stopped the practice of 'limpeza de sangue', making it impossible to know among the Portuguese who had Jewish ancestors and who didn't. Before that, apparently it was very easy to verify if one had these ancestors. After his measures, it became impossible.
And, regarding AlexdeLarge's post I quoted earlier, Portuguese settlers still came after the initial wave. All the Portuguese blood in Brazil doesn't come from just João Ramalho and later the immigrants of the 19th and 20th century. The genealogy of former president Getulio Vargas, for example, shows only Portuguese from Azores 6 generations earlier, in the 1700s:
There are lots of other examples in that blog.
According to statistics Brazil has 45% whites (90 million) but in reality around 25%-30% are of pure european ancestry. It's a little bit like the USA but with different percentages, the USA of course has more whites (about 65%).
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