(Chapter X, section 3)

Great Britian, General Survey

In comparison with Ireland, the larger and more populous island of Great Britain is more varied in topography and climate, and possesses a much greater regional variability in population. The materials which serve to describe the living British, while only partly adequate, nevertheless suffice to show that there are several important racial differences between them and the Irish. In the first place, none of the regionally differentiated British groups shows as great a reëmergence of the northen Brünn race as that in Ireland. In the second, brunet Mediterranean; difficult to isolate in Ireland, have survived or reëmerged in large numbers in Wales and in the manufacturing districts of the Midlands and of Scotland. In the third place, the numerically predominant racial element in the British population is Nordic, with the Keltic Iron Age variety more important than the Anglo-Saxon or Germanic form. Brachycephals of Bronze Age inspiration are not uncommon as individuals, but have no large modern area of concentration.

In studying the modern British, let us first run over the whole island in a general way in a few characters, and then concentrate upon some of the more distinctive local groups which seem to possess racial individualities of their own.

The pigmentation of the British has, in no large or significant series, been studied by means of standard charts. In regard to skin color, little is known from the statistical standpoint, except that it is characteristically fair,15 and apparently as light as that of the Irish in most cases,16 although in certain relatively brunet regions, such as Deyonshire, Cornwall, Wales, and parts of western Scotland, there are without doubt darker-skinned minorities. The Irish tendency to freckling is also common in Great Britain, especially among the Scotch, who without doubt equal the Irish in this respect.17 More characteristic of British skin than freckling, even, is its tendency to become red when constantly exposed to the air. This extreme vascularity, although without doubt partly climatic, must be racial to a certain extent, since it is accompanied by a physiological inability to tan.

Taking Great Britain as a whole, the hair color of its inhabitants is very similar to that of the Irish, except that the British have more light brown, and the Irish more dark brown, shades. In this comparison, England, including Wales, is nearly identical with Scotland. Both the English and the Scotch have as much red hair as the Irish, while the Welsh have more; both the Scotch and the Irish have somewhat higher increments of black hair than England with Wales; and if Wales is studied separately, England emerges as the lightest haired of the four major divisions of the British Isles, and Wales as the darkest.18

The regional distribution of hair color in Great Britain19 closely follows that of total pigmentation as shown on Map 8. In England, black hair ranges from nearly 0 to 10 per cent, except in Devonshire and Cornwall, where it reaches a maximum of 20 per cent in the region of Penzance. Along the eastern coast it is extremely rare, and the average for the country is probably between 4 per cent and 5 per cent. Dark brown hair accounts for 14 per cent to 43 per cent of the population in the different parts of England. In general, it runs below 30 per cent in the regions of intensive Saxon and Danish occupation - that is, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Yorkshire - while it averages above 30 per cent in the west, and has a mean of approximately 40 per cent in Cornwall. Brown hair, a light-to-intermediate hue, ranges from 57 per cent to 24 per cent, and has a distribution precisely opposite to that of dark brown hair, which may be considered intermediate-to-dark. On the whole brown is more prevalent than dark brown, and the blond element is considerably more important than the brunet one among the English. Fair hair, representing golden, ashen, and also light brown hues, varies from 5 per cent to 47 per cent. Well over 25 per cent is typical of the North Sea coast, while in Cornwall it runs from 10 per cent to 15 per cent. Among English blonds, golden hair is far commoner than the ashen variety, but ash-blondism is by no means absent, nor as rare as in Ireland.

In Wales, 10 per cent of the total have black hair, and only 8 per cent are fair in the English sense. Dark brown predominates over medium brown, while red, which averages 5 per cent, runs as high as 9 per cent in small localities. Beddoe finds as much as 86 to 89 per cent of black and dark brown hair in such places as Newquay and Denbighshire Upland. On the whole, Wales, in accordance with its mountainous character and its general preservation of ancient cultural traits, is a region of strong local variability, which manifests itself particularly in pigmentation.

In Scotland, the systematic study of 7000 adult males and of half a million schoolchildren20 makes our knowledge of the regional distribution of hair color relatively complete. Black hair ranges among adults from 0 to 8 per cent by counties, but nowhere attains the figures observed in Cornwall, Devonshire, and Wales. Dark brown hair accounts for 38 per cent of the population; the medium to light brown shade, with 42 per cent, is the most numerous; fair hair runs to 11 per cent, and red to 5 per cent.

Tocher finds that jet black hair is commoner in the western highlands than elsewhere, and is statistically correlated with the greatest survival of Gaelic speech. But since Gaelic was brought from Ireland in the Christian era, and the Goidelic Kelts of Ireland were not notably black haired, this brunet condition must be due to an earlier racial element. That black hair and Keltic speech both survive in Wales, furthermore, does not mean that the two were originally associated, for Kymric had heen spoken in Wales only a few hundred years before the Saxons came. The western lowland counties of Scotland, which include the ancient Kymric kingdom of Strathclyde, are no darker in hair color than the rest of Scotland.

The eastern Scottish coast, from Caithness to Berwick, shows little of this black hair, and in general the areas of both Pictish and Saxon concentration are quite deficient in it. This finding should dispel the idea that the Picts were a notably brunet people. Fair hair is commonest in the east, in both highlands and lowlands, and is especially prevalent in the very northeastern corner, and in the Orkneys and Shetlands, where much of the blood is Scandinavian.

In the cities of Scotland some important facts in regard to hair color have been uncovered. While Edinburgh and Aberdeen have relatively fair populations, and reflect the pigment character of the populations around them, Glasgow, which is not only the largest city in Scotland but also the second largest in the British Isles, is notable for a heavy concentration of dark brown hair, which seems distinctive not only of the city itself but also of the thickly settled manufacturing district which surrounds it. Tocher, who has made an exhaustive study of the city by sections, finds that while dark hair is commonest in the poorer districts and in the portions of the city which contain the largest ratio of foreign population, it cannot be entirely attributed to foreign blood, which is in the minority everywhere.

In the Glasgow district, as in the Midlands, slum conditions and factory existence have brought about a reëmergence of the older Mediterranean element in the population, submerged since the Neolithic; although published evidence from the English Midlands which will confirm this is as yet lacking, there can be no doubt of the general accuracy of this conclusion. The study of other criteria from Scotland will confirm it in regard to the Glasgow district.

Whereas the British are on the whole lighter haired than the Irish, they are at the same time darker eyed. The difference is not, however, a great one, and in both England and Scotland blue and light-mixed eyes are in the majority.21 Since the pigment division of Great Britain runs north and south, the total eye color classes of both Scotland and England-plus-Wales are nearly identical, and regional variations follow those of hair color.

In only one published British series was a Martin eye color chart used - that of von Luschan's British scientists, a highly selected group of 84 men returning from a scientific congress in Australia.22 Of this group, which included Charles Darwin the younger, 29.8 per cent had pure light eyes (Martin #15-16); 27.4 per cent light-mixed eyes (Martin #12-14); 2.4 per cent pure dark eyes (Martin #1-4); while the remaining 40.4 per cent had medium- or dark-mixed irises. According to most European standards the total of lights would be considered 57 per cent. This small series is as light eyed as some of the Norwegian coastal groups, but not as light as most of Scandinavia, or as Ireland.

In the large, regional studies of British eye color, 62 per cent of English are called light eyed, and 34 per cent dark. On this basis the fishermen of the English North Sea coast have as much as 90 per cent of light eyes, and, at the same time, the Cornish run as low as 55 per cent. Other ratios of 55 per cent to 60 per cent occur in towns and cities scattered throughout England, and seem typical of urban populations. The Cornish, who are the darkest eyed of the English, are still predominantly a light-mixedeyed people, as are the English as a whole. No typically brunet population may be found in England.

Wales, however, is notably darker eyed. Out of Beddoe's series of 3000, 34 per cent are called brown eyed, 15 per cent mixed, and 51 per cent light. Although the light-eyed element is still the more numerous in the principality as a whole, it is possible to distinguish typically dark-eyed districts. Fleure found between 60 per cent and 70 per cent of "dark" eyes in Landyssul, Newquay, and Denbighshire Upland, and Beddoe found the same among the Abergavenny country people, among the townsmen of Brecon, and in Merthyr and Taffvale. These are all isolated regions, and the antiquity of dark eye color in Wales is evident.

In Scotland, 32 per cent of adult males have pure light eyes, 48 per cent are called mixed, and 20 per cent dark. The latter category probably includes a number of dark-mixed iris patterns. Blue eyes are commonest in the north and south of Scotland, and gray eyes appear in numbers in the Shetlands and Orkneys, under Scandinavian inspiration. Mixed eyes are typical of east central Scotland, while brown eyes reach their highest ratio in the Glasgow region, among the industrial population. The area of Gaelic speech, which Tocher found associated with an excess of dark hair, is also notably blue eyed.

The general pigment character of Great Britain, as shown on Map 8, is predominantly light mixed. Fair, vascular skin, medium brown hair, an excess of rufosity and freckling, and blue or light-mixed eyes are typical of the British as a whole. This pigment combination without doubt reflects the coloring of the Iron Age Kelts, who have made the greatest single contribution to the present British populatlon. Blondism of Scandinavian intensity, reflecting Saxon and Danish influence, is characteristic of the whole eastern coast of England and Scotland, while a strong brunet survival in Cornwall and Wales indicates the presence of a pre-Keltic population of considerable intensity. The industrial revolution, which has fostered dense under-privileged populations in the Midlands and on the Clyde, has enormously increased, by some selective process, the darker-haired and darker-eyed elements in Britain. In genera1, differences in social level and in occupation reflect racial differences, which show themselves to a certain extent in pigmentation. The upper social strata, being on the whole blonder, follow the pigment pattern of the Saxons, Danes, and Normans. This differentiation may well have been even stronger in the Middle Ages, when social lines were more strictly and overtly drawn than today. The Englishman who travels abroad and is seen by foreigners, and the one whose photograph frequently appears in the London Illustrated News, is more likely to be blond than the general run of his more obscure compatriots who stay at home, and whose faces are publicly depicted only when they have committed crimes.

The regional variations of stature in Great Britain may be observed with sufficient accuracy on Map 5. The mean for the whole island is approximately 172 cm.,23 which is comparable to Ireland, and to Norway and Sweden. On the whole, Scotland is taller than England, and England taller than Wales. The blond Saxon-Danish strip of country along the North Sea shore, from Scotland through Suffolk, is the tallest part of England, as tall as most of Scotland; while the counties bordering on the Thames estuary and the Channel are taller than those immediately inland. In western England and in Wales, shorter stature is not regionally associated with the most brunet pigmentation. Cornishmen are the tallest of the British west of Berkshire, while the shortest stature in Britain by counties is found, not in the brunet districts of central Wales, but in the mining country of south Wales, in the counties bordering the inner section of the Bristol Channel, in Shropshire and Hereford, and in the counties immediately adjoining London. In no county, however, does the mean fall below 168 cm. although in individual villages in Wales it is as low as 165 cm.24 In Scotland a belt of relatively short stature running from 169 cm. to 171 cm. stretches across the country diagonally from the Clyde to the Forth, and includes the Glasgow industrial area.

The mean stature of England and Wales appears to have increased from about 170 cm. in 1865, to its present level of over 172 cm.25 At the same time, that of the Scotch may have shrunk in certain areas, although Scotland as a whole has probably increased.26 The general British increase may be traced in different social classes as well as in regional populations. Cambridge students in 1888 had a mean stature of 175 cm., Oxford, in 1911, of 177 cm. During the first quarter of the present century, English convicts rose from 166 cm. to 168 cm.

In England as in Sweden, social and occupational differences in stature are greater than regional differences.27 As early as 1880, the mean for the nobility and for professional men and financial leaders was 174.4 cm.; between them and the next tallest group, clerks and shopkeepers, was a drop to 172.6 cm.; farmers and road workers followed with 171.5 cm.; factory workers, miners, laborers in general, and seamen all had occupational means of under 170 cm., while convicts, at the bottom of the list, averaged only 166 cm. Among Goring's English convicts, those coming from destitute family surroundings had a mean stature of 161 cm., those from well-to-do families 167.7 cm., with others graded between.28

The English are, on the whole, equal in weight to the Irish, or slightly lighter, and show as great a class differentiation in this character as in stature. Oxford and Cambridge students, who are for the most part under 25 years of age, have means of 155 lbs., while prison inmates vary from 132 to 154 lbs. in accordance with differences in home environment. Heavy weights are common on the east coast, as at Flamborough, Yorkshire, where a mean of 168 lbs. has been recorded; in Leeds and in Cardiff the mean is 156 lbs. The bodily proportions of English and Scotch are on the whole indicative of a linear to somatic, or "athletic," constitutional form. The relative span is as a rule around 102 and 103, comparable to the Nordic means for eastern Norway and Sweden. These low span ratios are due not to narrow shoulders but to relatively short arms. The relative sitting heights of 52 to 53 are slightly shorter than those of the Irish, and again similar to those of Scandinavian Nordics. The hips are moderate for Europeans, with bi-iliac means of 28-30 cm., and narrow in proportion to the shoulder breadths.

Since the Mesolithic the British have possessed, even during the Bronze Age, heads of unusual length. Hence it is not surprising to find that the modern English, Welsh, and Scotch exceed most European groups in this respect. Only in western Norway, Iceland, and Ireland can they be equalled. The mean for each of the three British groups is approximately 195 mm.29 In England most of the differences known are social rather than geographical; university students and men of science have means ranging from 196 mm. to 199 mm., while criminal means run as low as 191 mm. In Wales the head length varies regionally from 192 mm. in Montgomeryshire to 198 and 199 mm. in Cardiganshire and Cardiff. Extreme lengths which approach the 200 mm. mark are mostly confined to isolated, rural groups. In Scotland the greatest lengths appear in the far north, and the least in the industrial trough from the Clyde to the Forth.

For all its length the English head is not especially narrow, since a general mean for the country would approximate 153 to 154 mm. In Wales the narrower mean of 152 mm. is found for the entire principality. Although in some parts of Wales the heads are as broad as in England, in others, such as Montgomeryshire and Carmathen, the means fall to 148 and 149 mm. In Scotland a total mean of about 152 mm. applies to the civil population,30 but there is a difference of 4.4 mm. between the means for Aberdeen and Banffshire (153 mm.), at one extreme, and that for Dumbarton (148 mm.) at the other. In general, the northern Scottish counties are broader headed than the industrial districts and the lowlands.

As Ripley stated some forty years ago, the cephalic index is one of the least variable physical traits in the British Isles. England, Scotland, and Wales are all fundamentally mesocephalic, and no regional mean falls below 76 or rises above 80. On the whole, Great Britain is narrower headed than Ireland, and the British resemble the eastern Irish and the Irish Protestants in this respect. As Map 6 shows, the lowest cephalic indices are to be found in Wales and in the Midlands, and also in the lowlands and industrial districts of Scotland, while the highest occur in the north of Scotland, where a minor survival of Bronze Age brachycephaly is suggested. High indices in the Orkneys and Shetlands may rather imply the settlement of Vikings from southwestern Norway.

Measurements on the head height and on the facial dimensions of British are not numerous enough or sufficiently standardized to be satisfactory. Minimum frontal means range from 105 to 110 mm.; the bizygomatic diameter is narrow (136-137 mm.) among criminals, broad (144 mm.) among scientists; in Wales local means of 139 and 140 mm. are found, in the north of Scotland, of 140-142 mm. Bigonials follow the minimum frontal, and range from 105 to 109 mm. These breadth dimensions fall within Norwegian and Irish ranges, and seem for the most part essentially Nordic. Both foreheads and jaws are too broad for most Mediterraneans. Face heights of 122 to 126 mm. confirm this Nordic association. The noses are longer and narrower than those of the Irish, as a rule, and nasal indices of 62 to 65 are comparable to those in Scandinavia. There seem to be no perceptible regional variations in this respect, as far as one can tell from available data.

The results of this extremely unsatisfactory survey of the facial characters of the English, Welsh, and Scotch are that all three seem to be very much the same; the face is typically moderate in width, and of more than average European length. The forehead and jaw diameters are relatively great, and give to the face a parallel-sided appearance. The nose is leptorrhine and of normal European dimensions. The facial dimensions are on the whole Nordic, and fall between Irish and eastern Norwegian means.

If metrical constants aside from stature, length, and head breadth are scarce, observational statistics on the British are even less satisfactory.31 Like the Irish, the British appear normally equipped for Europeans in body hair and in degree of beard development. In hair form, the majority are usually recorded as straight, the rest mostly as wavy; on the whole the English, at least, are probably straighter haired than the Irish. Although the Silures of Wales were said by the Romans to have had curly hair, there is no evidence from Wales to show that this hair form is especially common. On the whole the British hair is finer in texture than that of many Europeans.

Among the English, Welsh, and Scotch internal and median eyefolds are very uncommon, while external folds are not infrequent. Thick eyebrows, characteristic of the Irish, are also found among the Scotch, especially in old age. Concurrency of the eyebrows is found in only 30 to 40 per cent of British; in Goring's criminal series it is linked with dark hair color. Among the British browridges of all normal European degrees are found, and on the whole the development is medium, with a large minority of prominent forms.

The slope of the forehead is frequently pronounced, as is typical of the Keltic Iron Age crania, and as may be seen from the composite silhouettes of English men and women shown in Fig. 32. The nasion depression is

Fig. 32. COMPOSITE SILHOUETTES OF ENGLISH MEN AND WOMEN. After McLearn, Morant, and Pearson, Biometrika, vol. 20b, 1928-1929, Plates 2 and 3.

characteristically slight, and the root of the nose high and narrow. The bridge is as a rule also high, and of narrow to moderate breadth. Straight nasal profiles are found in from 50 per cent to 80 per cent of cases, and the second most numerous category is wavy or concavo-convex, which runs as high as 40 per cent and averages 25 per cent of the whole. This type of profile is produced by a prominence of the nasal bones, the formation of a slight angle between their extremities and the cartilage, and an elevation of the tip lobes slightly above the cartilage level. From the Nordic standpoint, this type of nose is closer to the Trřndelagen type in Norway than to the classic Nordic of the eastern valleys; it is also associated in antique sculpture with representations of the Kelts. The Dying Gaul, for example, has a nose of this type. Concave noses are much rarer than in Ireland, and of the large convex minority, the angular or humped variety is the usual type, and the smoothly convex form is infrequent.

Lips seem to be thin to medium and little everted, chins strongly developed, but not to the degree found in western Ireland. Temples, malars, and gonial angles are as a rule compressed. All in all the scanty picture which our material gives us substantiates the impressions drawn from life. Although the British are quite variable in facial form, the features by which a foreigner would remember them would be a longness and narrowness of head and face, floridity, and a pinched prominence of the nose.

It is possible to make a number of correlations within some of the numerous series upon which our knowledge of British physical anthropology is based.32 Brunet hair and eye color uniformly go with a lower cephalic index than does light pigmentation. This reflects the fact that the Neolithic peoples had a cranial index of 72 and lower, while both varieties of Nordic have cranial means of 75. There is no evidence of a brunet round-headed type except in one series from the Chiltern Hills, in Oxfordshire, where dark complexion is positively associated with great head breadth. In Caithness and Sutherland, in the Scottish Highlands, pure light complexion is linked with great head breadth, indicating that the broadheaded factor is in this case probably Borreby in origin. In western Ireland four correlations indicate the same linkage, confirming the supposition that a broad head is borne by the Palaeolithic element.

In Cardiganshire in west central Wales, a selected group of 520 men with black or dark brown hair had a mean cephalic index of 74.6, and a stature of 167 cm. The index would be about 72 on the skull, which is the mean for the Long Barrow type of the Neolithic, and furthermore, the stature is comparable. Similarly in a Scottish Highland series 33 dark haired men have a mean cephalic index of 77.7, fair-haired ones of 78.1. The brunets have a mean head length of 196.7 mm., the blonds of 193.9 mm. In Elgin and Nairn, similarly, absolutely greater head lengths go with mixed and dark complexion.

These correlations on the whole show that a brunet racial type characterized by an extremely long cranial vault and moderately tall stature has retained its identity in the peripheries of Great Britain, notably in Wales and the Scotch Highlands, while the more numerous Nordic elements are characterized by a more moderate head length and mesocephaly. They also show that brachycephalic strains which have entered into the British racial composition must have been largely blond, although there is evidence of a minor element of brunet brachycephaly in one local instance.

If specific data for racial description is scanty in Great Britain, both the author and the reader can largely supply that deficiency from common observation. The most frequent type is a Nordic variety, as described above; but it is well known that other types are by no means rare. The thick-set, wide-faced, and large-nosed type, so common in caricature under the guise of John Bull, must be derived from the larger brachycephalic element brought in by the Bronze Age invasions; it is a British form of the continental Borreby race. In the fishing villages of the Yorkshire coast, where local dialects are spoken in which much Scandinavian still remains, and where the older fishermen still wear T-shaped amulets around their necks reminiscent of Thor's hammer, pure Norwegian and Danish physical types are common, and the same is true in the Orkneys and Shetlands.

Cornwall, which is the darkest county in England and an ancient Keltic linguistic stronghold, contains, like Wales, strong vestiges of a pre-Keltic population. That this is not a short Mediterranean variety, on the whole, is shown by the fact that the stature of Cornwall is relatively tall, and the mean cephalic index of the duchy not particularly low. A large-bodied, muscular type, with a head which is frequently brachycephalic, is common here, and must be attributed to the Bronze Age invasions. It has been claimed, without statistical evidence,34 that there is a special racial type among the fishermen and sailors who live in the seaports of Cornwall, Devonshire, Somerset, and South Wales, but especially in Cornwall. Besides having medium or tall stature, and a tendency to brachycephaly, they are said to be heavy-bodied, lateral in build, thick-necked, with features of a somewhat Armenoid cast, dark, curly hair, thick eyebrows, and eyes which are frequently brown.

This type is recognized in local Keltic tradition, and according to one legend, is said to have been brought from Troy. It may also be associated with the strong local belief that the Cornish are descended from Phoenicians. That there is such a type cannot be proved without metrical evidence, but it will be recognized by most persons familiar with this part of England. It can also be found in Massachusetts among old Cape Cod families whose ancestors came from Cornwall and Devon.

The most difficult local British type to study, with present materials, is the long-headed brunet population of the remoter districts of Wales.35 It is evident, however, that under the category of brunet dolichocephals there are actually several racial types of different origins which have been preserved by the marginal geographical nature of this country, as have the more easily identified Beaker types of more recent arrival.

In the first place, the work of Fleure and James on the Plynlimon moorlands people of Cardiganshire, an isolated group who live for the most part as shepherds, shows that this region is the center for all Wales of the greatest concentration of brunet dolichocephaly; their work also indicates that a primitive human type, with large browridges, a low vault, a projecting occiput, sloping forehead, a broad face, and prognathism survives here, and is to be found in solution throughout most of Wales. That this type is a survival from pre-Neolithic times seems reasonable. The head lengths associated with it run well over 200 mm., in many cases over 210 mm., and the stature is usually under 170 cm. The moderate stature, the narrow vault breadth, and the brunet pigmentation, as well as the general morphological character, prevent this type from being closely associated with the large-headed northern Palaeolithic sub-stratum in Ireland; one is reminded rather of the early Combe Capelle skull, and to a lesser extent, of the Mesolithic men of Téviec in Brittany.

The majority of the brunet dolichocephals, however, belong rather to the Long Barrow race of Megalithic introduction from the eastern Mediterranean shorelands. A selected group of 46 men from all parts of Wales, but in many cases from the neighborhood of the Plynlimon district, with cephalic indices under 73.0, have a mean head length of 201 mm., a breadth of 144.2 mm., and a stature of 168.0 cm. If this dolichocephalic element were predominantly a small Mediterranean, one would expect both the head length and stature to be much less than they are. Many other series from other parts of Wales confirm the general head form character of this predominant dolichocephalic brunet element. That it has absorbed the earlier Mesolithic or Palaeolithic type is likely, for there is nothing in the English Long Barrow crania to indicate the importation of such a primitive variety as an end type.

If we consider that the Long Barrow type was in original form almost purely brown eyed, then it must be less important in the racial structure of Wales than the Keltic Iron Age Nordic, for in but few districts are brown eyes in the majority. It is possible, however, here as in Ireland, that there was an incipient blue-eyed condition among the Long Barrow people, as among living North Africans who belong to a closely similar type, and that in northwestern Europe this condition was increased through stimuli similar to those which produced blondism among other races.36

Among individual Welshmen it is possible to pick out individuals of a smaller Mediterranean type, similar to that of Spain and Portugal, and suggesting a survival from the Neolithic peoples of Windmill Hill cultural affiliation who entered southern Britain from the continent. This type is also easily isolated in the Midland factory districts, and among the Glasgow population. In Wales, however, it is difficult to separate it from the Long Barrow type, with which it is frequently associated. Von Eickstedt's series of 30 men from Llangynog in North Montgomeryshire, and from Kerry in the southern part of the same county, furnish the best anthropometric evidence of its presence. In both regions brunet pigmentation is characteristic; both series are mesocephalic. The mean stature of the Kerry men is 166.5 cm., of the Llangynog group 168.2 cm. The first mean is low enough to indicate a strong Mediterranean element. The head and face measurements, however, of both groups are much alike, and too great for a small Mediterranean series; the head length mean is 196 mm. in each, the breadth 154; the mention-nasion face height is 124 mm. in Kerry, 125 mm. in Llangynog; the bizygomatic of Kerry 140 mm., that of Llangynog 139 mm. The noses of each are roughly 53 mm. by 34 mm., the nasal indices -61.8 for Kerry, 62.8 for Llangynog.

The head breadth, face height, and face breadth are all a little too great for a small Mediterranean type, but an examination of the distribution curves of the two series eliminates this difficulty. The stature is strongly bimodal, with a smaller mode at 163 cm., and a larger peak at 169 cm.; head length has modes at 193 and 199 mm.; head breadth at 151 mm. and 157 mm.; the facial index at 86 and 92; the nasal index at 59 and 67. If we grant the small Mediterranean type a mean stature of 163 cm., a head length of 193 mm., and the lower facial and higher nasal indices, it assumes a metrical character which can easily be duplicated in the countries in which this type is more numerous and more easily identified, for example, Arabia and North Africa.

The pursuit of these early brunet survivals in remote districts of Wales must not, however, make us forget that the bulk of the evidence from that country as a whole indicates that the variety of Nordic to which the bearers of Kymric speech belonged is today nearly if not fully as important there as the totality of earlier human varieties.


15. Luschan, F. von, and Emma von, ZFE, vol. 46, 1914, pp.58-80. This study contains observations on 84 British scientists, taken with the von Luachan table.

16. Hooton, E. A., in data on many thousands of American prison inmates, finds prisoners of British birth to be as fair skinned as Irish and Scandinavian prisoners. Hooton, E. A., The American Criminal.

17. From Hooton's criminal material.

18. This comparison is based largely upon the study of 30,000 soldiers horn in the British Isles, who served in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and upon a further study of 12,000 who served in the American Expeditionary Forces during the World War.
Gould, B. A., Investigations in the Militaiy and Anthropological Statistics of American Soldiers.
Davenport, C. B., and Love, A. G., Army Anthropometry.

19. Based upon numerous studies, including especially the Report of the Anthropometric Committee, and the works of Beddoe, Fleure, and Parsons. A limited bibliography of general works on Great Britain which include hair color studies, and of specific works on England and Wales, follows;
Anonymous, Report of the Anthropometric Committee, RBAA, Sess. 49, 1880, pp.175-209.
Anonymous, Final Report of the Anthropometric Committee, London, 1883. Beddoe, J., The Races of Britain; The Physical Anthropology of the Isle of Man; On the North Settlements of West Saxons; JRAI, vol. 27, 1898, pp.164-170; vol. 34, 1904, pp.92-99; MASL, vol. 2, 1866, pp. 37-45, 348-357; AR, vol. 1, 1863, pp.310-312; RBAA, vol. 41, 1872, p.147.
Bradbrooke, W., and Parsons, F. G., JRAI, vol. 52, 1922, pp.113-126.
Davies, E., and Fleure, H. J., JRAI, vol. 46, 1936, pp.129-188.
Dunlop, A., JRAI, vol. 22, 1893, pp.335-345.
Eickstedt, E. von, ZFRK, vol. 1, 1935, pp.1964.
Fleming, R. M., Man, vol. 22, 1922, pp.69-75.
Fleure, H. J., The Races of England and Wales.
Fleure, H. J., and James, T. C., JRAI, vol. 46, 1916, pp.35-154; RBAA, vol. 80, 1910-11, pp.726-727.
Flower, W. H., Garson, J. G., Bloxam, G. W., Haddon, A. C., and Smith, W., RBAA, vol. 63, 1893-94, pp.654,661.
Flower, W. H., Garson, J. G., Bloxam, G. W., Haddon, A. C., and Windle, B., RBAA, vol. 64, 1895, pp.444-453.
Fox, A. L.,JRAI, vol. 6, 1887, pp. 443-457.
Freire-Marecco, B., Man, vol. 9, 1909, pp. 99-108.
Goring, C., The English Convict.
Grünbaum, O. F. F., RBAA, vol. 67, 1898, pp. 505-506.
Haddon, A. C., RBAA, pp.503-504.
Muffang, M. H., Anth, vol. 10, 1899, pp. 21-41.
Moore, A. W., and Beddoe, J., JRAI, vol. 27, 1897, pp.104-130.
Parsons, F. G., JRAI, vol. 50, 1920, pp.159-182.
Pearson, K., and Tippett, L. H. C., Biometrika, vol. 16, 1924, pp.118-138.
Pitt-Rivers, A. H. L., JRAI, vol. 11, 1882, pp. 455-471.
Shrubsall, F. C., RSBH, vol. 39.
Taylor, J. J., RBAA, vol. 67, 1898, pp.507-510.
Walk, C. S., TYNU, 1886.

20. See especially the works of Tocher and of Gray in the following limited bibliography of works on Scotland which include hair color data.
Beddoe, J., JRAI, vol. 38, 1908, pp.212-220.
Cooper, J., RBAA, vol. 67, 1898, p.507.
Duncan, J. W., RBAA, p.506.
Forbes, A., RBAA, p.506.
Gray, J., RBAA, vol. 69, 1899-1900, pp. 874-875; JRAI, vol. 30, 1900, pp. 104-124; vol. 37, 1907, pp. 375-401.
Gray, J., and Tocher, J. F., The Ethnology of Buchan; JRAI, vol. 30, 1900, pp. 86-88.
Gregor, W., RBAA, vol. 67, 1898, pp. 500-502.
Macleay, K. S., RBAA, p. 507.
Reid, R. W., and Mulligan, J. H., JRAI, vol. 54, 1924, pp.300-313.
Smith, J., and Gardiner, J. B., RBAA, vol. 67, 1898, p.507.
Teit, J. A., and Parsons, F. G., JRAI, vol. 53, 1923, pp.473-483.
Tocher, J. F., TBFC, 1897, pp.116; Biometrika, vol. 5, 1906-07, pp. 298-350; vol. 6, 1908-09, pp.129-234; HTR, Edenburgh and London, vols. 2 and 3, 1924.

21. Sources same as for skin color and hair color, and also:
Galton, E., JRAI, vol. 28, 1889, pp.420-430.
Pitt-Rivers, Garson, and Bloxam, RBAA, vol. 59, 1889-90, pp.423-435.

22. Luschan, Felix and Emma von, ZFE, vol. 46, 1914, pp.58-80.

23. References to stature may he found in most of the previously noted works referred to in this section. In addition to these, the following list may be mentioned:
Anonymous, RBAA, vol. 48, 1879, pp.152-155; vol. 51, 1882, pp.225-272.
Beddoe, J., Anth, vol. 5, 1894, pp. 513-529, 658-673.
Cripps, L., Greenwood, R., and Newbold, E. M., Biometrika, vol. 14, 1922-23, pp.316-336.
Downes, R. M., JAPL, vol. 48, 1914, pp.299-309.
Elderton, E. M., Biometrika, vol. 21, 1929, pp.429-430.
Fleure, H. J., JRAI, vol. 50, 1920, pp.12-40.
Fox, A. L., JRAI, vol. 5, 1875, pp.101-106.
Greenwood, R., Thompson, C. M., and Woods, H. M., Biometrika, vol. 17, 1925, pp.142-158.
MacDonnell, W. R., Biometrika, vol. 1, 1901-02, pp.177-227.
Marshall, J., JAPL, vol. 26, 1892, pp.445-500.
Peate, I. C., JRAI, vol. 55, 1925, pp.58-72.
Pitt-Rivers, Garson, and Bloxam, RBAA, vol. 60, 1890-91, pp.549-552.
Reid, R. W., and Mulligan, J. H., JRM, vol. 46, 1912, pp.1-10; vol. 54, 1924, pp.287-300.
Schuster, E., Biornetrika, vol. 8, 1911-12, pp.40-51.
Venn, J., JRAI, vol. 18, 1888, pp.140-154.

24. Eickstedt, E. von, ZFRK, vol. 1, #1, 1935, pp. 19-64.

25. Using the two American army figures as end points, and the British Association report for 1883.

26. The 1883 British survey gives a mean of 174.6 cm. for 1304 Scotsmen; Tocher, 40 years later, found a mean of 171.5 cm. for a series of 3474. The United States Army figures for the Civil War are: 4822 Scotch, Stature 171.5 cm.; World War, 2074 Scotch, Stature = 172.5 cm.

27. Robcrts, C., Manual of Anthropometry.

28. Goring, C., The English Convict.

29. Many of the preceding references contain data on head length, head breadth, and the cephalic index. The following may be added:
Beddoe,J., Anth, vol. 5, 1894, pp. 658-673.
Parsons, F. G., Man, Vol. 22, 1922, pp.19-23.
Gladstone, R.J., JAPL, vol. 37, 1903, pp.333-346; Vol. 51, 1921, pp. 343-369.
Griffiths, G. B., Biometrika, vol. 4, 1904, pp. 60-62.

30. Tocher, J. F., 1924. Tocher's means for soldiers are over a millimeter less than for the civil population, and the same is true in regard to head length. His total Scotch means for soldiers are: Head Length = 193.0 mm., Head Breadth = 150.3 mm.

31. Almost entirely limited to Hooton's British-born convicts in American jails, Goring's convicts, and a series of 32 Shetland Islanders emigrating to Canada. (Teit, J. A., and Parson; F. G., JRAI, vol. 53, 1923, pp. 473-483.)

32. Scheidt, in a lengthy and thorough survey of the published series, made 2 racially significant correlations in England, 2 in Wales, 6 in Scotland, and 4 in Ireland.
Scheidt, W., ZFMA, vol. 28, 1930, pp.1-198.

33. Gray, J., and Tocher, J. F., The Ethnology of Buchan.

34. Andrews, T. H., Man, vol. 21, 1921, pp.137-139.

35. Eickstedt, E. von, ZFRK, vol. 1, 1935, pp.1964.
Fleure, H. J., The Races of Britain and Wales.
Fleure, H. J., and James, T. C., JRAI, vol. 46, NS. 19, 1916, pp.35-153.
Peate, I. C., JRAI, vol. 40, 1925, pp.58-72.

36. Eickstedt, E. von, ZFRK, vol. 1, 1935, pp. 19-64.