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Kazimiera
09-19-2013, 02:45 AM
Siberian Princess reveals her 2,500 year old tattoos

By The Siberian Times reporter
14 August 2012

The ancient mummy of a mysterious young woman, known as the Ukok Princess, is finally returning home to the Altai Republic this month.

http://siberiantimes.com/upload/information_system_39/4/1/1/item_411/information_items_411.jpg
Reconstruction of a warrior's tattoos, who was discovered on the same plateau as the 'Princess'. All drawings of tattoos, here and below, were made by Elena Shumakova, Institute of Archeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science

She is to be kept in a special mausoleum at the Republican National Museum in capital Gorno-Altaisk, where eventually she will be displayed in a glass sarcophagus to tourists.

For the past 19 years, since her discovery, she was kept mainly at a scientific institute in Novosibirsk, apart from a period in Moscow when her remains were treated by the same scientists who preserve the body of Soviet founder Vladimir Lenin.

To mark the move 'home', The Siberian Times has obtained intricate drawings of her remarkable tattoos, and those of two men, possibly warriors, buried near her on the remote Ukok Plateau, now a UNESCO world cultural and natural heritage site, some 2,500 metres up in the Altai Mountains in a border region close to frontiers of Russia with Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan.

They are all believed to be Pazyryk people - a nomadic people described in the 5th century BC by the Greek historian Herodotus - and the colourful body artwork is seen as the best preserved and most elaborate ancient tattoos anywhere in the world.

To many observers, it is startling how similar they are to modern-day tattoos.

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/Princess%20Ukok,%20tattoos%20on%20her%20shoulder.j pg
Reconstruction of Princess Ukok's tattoos, made by Siberian scientists

The remains of the immaculately dressed 'princess', aged around 25 and preserved for several millennia in the Siberian permafrost, a natural freezer, were discovered in 1993 by Novosibirsk scientist Natalia Polosmak during an archeological expedition.

Buried around her were six horses, saddled and bridled, her spiritual escorts to the next world, and a symbol of her evident status, perhaps more likely a revered folk tale narrator, a healer or a holy woman than an ice princess.

There, too, was a meal of sheep and horse meat and ornaments made from felt, wood, bronze and gold. And a small container of cannabis, say some accounts, along with a stone plate on which were the burned seeds of coriander.

'Compared to all tattoos found by archeologists around the world, those on the mummies of the Pazyryk people are the most complicated, and the most beautiful,' said Dr Polosmak.

'More ancient tattoos have been found, like the Ice Man found in the Alps - but he only had lines, not the perfect and highly artistic images one can see on the bodies of the Pazyryks.

'It is a phenomenal level of tattoo art. Incredible.'

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/tattoo%20on%20hand%20and%20with%20a%20drawing%20of %20dear.jpg
Princess Ukok's shoulder, tattoo of fantastic animal, and a drawing of it made by Siberian scientists

While the tattoos, preserved in the permafrost, have been known about since the remains were dug up, until now few have seen the intricate reconstructions that we reveal here.

'Tattoos were used as a mean of personal identification - like a passport now, if you like. The Pazyryks also believed the tattoos would be helpful in another life, making it easy for the people of the same family and culture to find each other after death,' added Dr Polosmak.

'Pazyryks repeated the same images of animals in other types of art, which is considered to be like a language of animal images, which represented their thoughts.

'The same can be said about the tattoos - it was a language of animal imagery, used to express some thoughts and to define one's position both in society, and in the world. The more tattoos were on the body, the longer it meant the person lived, and the higher was his position.

'For example the body of one man, which was found earlier in the 20th century, had his entire body covered with tattoos. Our young woman - the princess - has only her two arms tattooed. So they signified both age and status.'

The tattoos on the left shoulder of the 'princess' show a fantastical mythological animal: a deer with a griffon's beak and a Capricorn's antlers. The antlers are decorated with the heads of griffons. And the same griffon's head is shown on the back of the animal.

The mouth of a spotted panther with a long tail is seen at the legs of a sheep.

She also has a deer's head on her wrist, with big antlers. There is a drawing on the animal's body on a thumb on her left hand.

On the man found close to the 'princess', the tattoos include the same fantastical creature, this time covering the right side of his body, across his right shoulder and stretching from his chest to his back.

The patterns mirror the tattoos on a much more elaborately covered male body, dug from the ice in 1929, whose highly decorated torso is also reconstructed in our drawing here.

His chest, arms, part of the back and the lower leg are covered with tattoos. There is an argali - a mountain sheep - along with the same deer with griffon's vulture-like beak, with horns and the back of its head which has a griffon's heads and an onager drawn on it.

All animals are shown with the lower parts of their bodies turned inside out. There is also a winged snow leopard, a fish and fast-running argali.

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/man,%20shoulder%20tattoo%20close%20up.jpg

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/man%20-2-mummy.jpg
A drawing of a tattoo on a warrior's shoulder. Below: this is what the tattoo looks like now, thousands of years after it was made

To some, the clash depicted on the tattoes between vultures and hoofed animals corresponds to the conflict between two worlds: a predator from the lower, chthonian world against herbivorous animals that symbolise the middle world.

Dr Polosmak is intrigued at way so little has changed.

'We can say that most likely there was - and is - one place on the body for everyone to start putting the tattoos on, and it was a left shoulder. I can assume so because all the mummies we found with just one tattoo had it on their left shoulders.

'And nowadays this is the same place where people try to put the tattoos on, thousands of years on.

'I think its linked to the body composition... as the left shoulder is the place where it is noticeable most, where it looks the most beautiful. Nothing changes with years, the body stays the same, and the person making a tattoo now is getting closer to his ancestors than he or she may realise.

'I think we have not moved far from Pazyryks in how the tattoos are made. It is still about a craving to make yourself as beautiful as possible.

'For example, about the British. A lot of them go on holiday to Greece, and when I've been there I heard how Greeks were smiling and saying that a British man's age can be easily understood by the number of tattoos on his body.

'I'm talking the working class now. And I noticed it, too. The older a person, the more tattoos are on his body.'


FINDING THE ICE-CLAD 'PRINCESS'

'It was an international research programme, devoted to the Pazyryk Iron Age culture,' said Academician Vyacheslav Molodin, deputy director of Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences.

To modern man, the only way in is by helicopter, yet in ancient times this was on the 'southern steppe road' used by migrating nomadic peoples in the pre-Christian and Dark Ages.

'The burial mound with the 'princess' seemed to be half deserted, with big holes which border guards dug to use the stones.

'It seemed less than hopeful. But Natalya Polosmak was determined that we had to start working on it.....

'To our utter surprise, there was an untouched burial chamber inside the mould.

'We started working on opening the 'ice lense' - the burial inside the mould was filled with ancient ice.

'We started to melt the ice. First the skeletons of six horses appeared, some with preserved wooden decorations on the harness, some with coloured saddles made from felt.

'On one of the saddles was a picture of a jumping winged lion.

'Then the burial room appeared from under the ice. It was made from larch logs. Inside stood a massive hollowed wooden log with a top, shut with bronze nails. Inside the log was all filled with ice.

'It was a tanned arm that appeared from under the ice first.

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/princess%20of%20Ukok%20mummy,%20with%20marked%20ta ttoo%20on%20her%20arm%20-%20credit%20Siberian%20Times,%20queries%20Will%20S tewart%20007%20985%20998%2094%2000.jpg

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/princess,%20fingers%20tattoo.jpg
Princess Ukok's hand, as the scientists saw her first, with marked tattoos on her fingers and, below, the drawings of tattoos

'A bit more work and we saw remain of a young woman, lying inside the log in a sleeping position, with her knees bent.

'She was dressed in a long shirt made from Chinese silk, and had long felt sleeve boots with a beautiful decoration on them.

'Chinese silk before was only found in 'Royal' burials of the Pazyryk people - it was more expensive than gold, and was a sign of a true wealth. 'There was jewellery and a mirror found by the log.

'The great value of Pazyryk burials is that they were all made in permafrost, which helped the preservation.

'It was quite unusual to have a single Pazyryk burial. Usually men from this culture were buried with women.

'In this case, her separate burial might signify her celibacy, which was typical for cult servants or shamans, and meant her independence and exceptionality.

'She had no weapons buried with her, or on her, which means that she certainly was not one of the noble Pazyryk women-warriors.

'Most likely, she possessed some special knowledge and was a healer, or folk tale narrator.

'From the inside the mummy was filled with herbs and roots. Her head was completely shaved, and she wore a horse hair wig.

'On top of the wig there was a symbol of the tree of life - a stick made from felt, wrapped with black tissue and decorated with small figures of birds in golden foil.

'On the front of the wig, like a cockade, was attached a wooden carving of deer.

'The princess's face and neck skin was not preserved, but the skin of her left arm survived, and we saw a tattoo, going all along it.

'She had tattoos on both arms, from shoulders to wrists, with some on the fingers, too. The best preserved of all was a tattoo on her left shoulder, featuring a deer with griffon's beak and a Capricorn's horns. A bit below is a sheep, with a snow leopard by its feet.'

It is said tattoos, once done, are for life. In this case, though, it was a whole lot longer. The experts say they were made with paint, partially concocted from the burned bits of plants, their soot or ashes which contained a high level of potassium. The drawings were pierced with a needle, and rubbed with a mixture of soot and fat.


WHAT RESEARCH ON HER BODY SHOWS

The experts say she died in her 20s, with the best guess at 25 to 28, and that this was 2,500 or more years ago, making her, for example, some five centuries older than Jesus Christ, and several hundred years the senior of Alexander the Great.

'She was called 'Princess' by the media. We just call her 'Devochka', meaning 'Girl'. She was 25-28 years old when she died,' said Irina Salnikova, head of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Museum of Archeology and Ethnography.

'The reason for her death is unknown, because all her internal organs were removed before the mummifying. All we see is that there is no visible damage to her skull, or anything pointing to the unnatural character of her death.

'Her body is curled, so we cant say for sure how tall she was. Some estimate her to be 1.62 metres, others say she could have been as tall as 1.68 metres .....

'We could not establish when the young woman has had her tattoos made, at what age. The horses, found by her burial, were most likely first killed, and then buried with her.'

In 2010 an MRI scan was conducted on the mummy, the first time this had been done on ancient remains in Russia. The final results of exhaustive analytical work has still not been released.

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/Ukok%20restored%20face%202.jpg
A sculptor's impression of how Princess Ukok looked 2,500 years ago

But Andrei Letyagin, chairman of the MRI Center of the Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, said: 'The cause of death remains unknown. I don't believe that it will be possible to find an answer to this question because there's no brain and no internal organs in the body.'

In all probability she did not die from injury. 'Her skull is fully preserved, and so are the bones,' he confirmed. DNA obtained from her remains is intriguing.

The Princess of Ukok is not related to any of the Asian races, the scientists are convinced. She is not related, evidently, to the present day inhabitants of Altai. Moreover, she had a European appearance, it has been claimed.

'There was a moment of gross misunderstanding when a legend came about this mummy being a foremother of people of Altai,' said Molodin.

'The people of Pazyryk belonged to different ethnic group, in no way related to Altaians. Genetic studies showed that the Pazyryks were a part of Samoyedic family, with elements of Iranian-Caucasian substratum.'

So perhaps more Samoyedic than Scythian.

'We tried to overcome the misunderstanding, but sadly it didn't work.'

OBJECTIONS

Many locals in Altai were nervous from the start about the removal of remains from sacred burial mounds, known as kurgans, regardless of the value to science of doing such work.

In a land where the sway of shamans still holds, they believe the princess's removal led immediately to bad consequences.

'There are places here that it is considered a great sin to visit, even for our holy men. The energy and the spirits there are too dangerous,' warned one local. 'Every kurgan has its own spirit - there is both good and bad in them - and people here have suffered much misfortune since the Ice Princess was disturbed.'

It is nothing short of sacrilege to pour hot water on the remains of ancients who have survived in the permafrost for thousands of years, he said.

The 'curse of the mummy' even caused a crash of the helicopter carrying her remains away from Altai, some believe. Then in Novosibirsk, her body, preserved so well for so long, started to decompose.

Stories circulated that the princess had been stored in a freezer used to preserve cheese. Fungi began growing on the preserved flesh, it was claimed.

Whatever the truth, the scientists sought emergency help from the world-renowned Lenin embalming experts who worked on her remains for a year.

Back in Altai, many ills have been blamed on her removal: forest fires, high winds, illness, suicides and an upsurge in earthquakes in the Altai region.

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/Ukok%20gv.jpg

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/ukok%202%20burial.jpg
One of the most mysterious in the world: Ukok plateau, Alta, Siberia. Pictures: Elena Nikultseva

Local woman, Olga Kurtugashova, said: 'She may be a mummy but her soul survives, and they say a shaman communicated with her and she asked to go home. That's what the people want, too.'

'Our ancestors are buried in these mounds,' insisted Rimma Erkinova, deputy director of the Gorno-Altaisk Republican National Museum as a war of words raged over the last decade. 'There are sacred items there. The Altai people never disturb the repose of their ancestors. We shouldn't have any more excavations until we've worked out a proper moral and ethical approach.'

THE CAMPAIGN FOR HER RETURN TO ALTAI

'She was a beautiful young woman, whom they dug up, poured hot water and chemicals upon, and subjected to other experiments. They did this to a real person,' complained Erkinova to the Irish Times newspaper in in 2004.

The same year, an Altai regional chief insisted: 'We must calm people and bury the Altai Princess.

'We're having earth tremors two or three times a week. People think this will go on as long as the princess's spirit is not allowed to rest in peace.'

Many wanted the princess to be returned from the Archaeological and Ethnographic Institute of Novosibirsk, some 600 km away, and restored to her original burial site.

After some 300 earth tremors in a six month period, the head of Kosh-Agachsky district Auelkhan Dzhatkambaev,appealed to the Siberian Federal District presidential envoy Leonid Drachevsky for this to happen.

Drachevsky travelled to Kosh-Agach and told residents that the mummies would not be returned, saying they were serving important scientific purposes, and that he was 'simply uncomfortable hearing about angry spirits, as if we were living in the Middle Ages'.

Erkinova's plan was different. 'We shall put the princess in a glass sarcophagus, so everybody can come and bow before her,' she said.

'This is a very painful issue. Altai's native people worry about their forbear. The Princess must return to us.'

People were angry, too, that the mummies were taken on a tour to Korea and Japan with one report saying the princess 'was met like a diva, with vast crowds, admirers on their knees and bouquets of red roses'.

Eventually a compromise was reached, though delays and arguments followed. Finally this culminates in this month's return of the princess not to her burial place but to the Altai museum.

'We agreed to give back the princess once the conditions for looking after it were right. That means proper accommodation with an air conditioner and a special sarcophagus,' said Molodin as long ago as 1997.

'Another condition was that this was our intellectual property and that we would have the right to use it for exhibitions and to study it. We're not doing this out of curiosity but in the interests of science. The soul is somewhere else and we're studying the remains. So I don't see a violation of any accepted social rule here.'

Finally, all now agree the princess is coming home.

BANNING MORE ARCHEOLOGICAL DIGS

The Altai authorities have now declared the remote mountain area from where the princess and her kinsmen were buried as a 'zone of peace' where no more excavations will take place, despite the near-certain treasures lying in the permafrost.

Such work amounts to plundering, they believe.

To Molodin, who found the male mummy several years after the princess, this deprives the world of a valuable scientific inheritance. He argues, too, that the issue is critical since global warming means the ancient bodies will decay.

Scientists reckon there are thousands of burial mounds here, hundreds of which date to the Pazyryk period, many of which may contain answers to questions about where we come from.


Source: http://siberiantimes.com/culture/others/features/siberian-princess-reveals-her-2500-year-old-tattoos/

Shah-Jehan
09-19-2013, 02:48 AM
I saw that representation being used to show how Proto-Indo-europeans looked like, the kurganoids or whatnot:lol:

larali
09-19-2013, 02:52 AM
Beautiful! How cool that tattoos have been around as long as they have...

Smeagol
09-19-2013, 02:52 AM
I saW that representation being used to show how Proto-Indo-europeans looked like, the kurganoids or whatnot:lol:

What's so funny about that?

Shah-Jehan
09-19-2013, 02:55 AM
What's so funny about that?

Oops never mind, the current Altai republic is Turkic but, it was Scythian before, my bad...

Tropico
09-19-2013, 02:56 AM
Damn their legit.

Benacer
09-19-2013, 02:56 AM
BANNING MORE ARCHEOLOGICAL DIGS

The Altai authorities have now declared the remote mountain area from where the princess and her kinsmen were buried as a 'zone of peace' where no more excavations will take place, despite the near-certain treasures lying in the permafrost.

Such work amounts to plundering, they believe.

To Molodin, who found the male mummy several years after the princess, this deprives the world of a valuable scientific inheritance. He argues, too, that the issue is critical since global warming means the ancient bodies will decay.

Scientists reckon there are thousands of burial mounds here, hundreds of which date to the Pazyryk period, many of which may contain answers to questions about where we come from.



I know it's their land, but this sort of stuff really pisses me off. :picard1:

Oneeye
09-19-2013, 02:57 AM
Those are some pretty neat tats there.


I particularly like this one:

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/tattoo%20on%20hand%20and%20with%20a%20drawing%20of %20dear.jpg

Kazimiera
09-19-2013, 02:59 AM
Oops never mind, the current Altai republic is Turkic but, it was Scythian before, my bad...


The Princess of Ukok is not related to any of the Asian races, the scientists are convinced. She is not related, evidently, to the present day inhabitants of Altai. Moreover, she had a European appearance, it has been claimed.

'There was a moment of gross misunderstanding when a legend came about this mummy being a foremother of people of Altai,' said Molodin.

'The people of Pazyryk belonged to different ethnic group, in no way related to Altaians. Genetic studies showed that the Pazyryks were a part of Samoyedic family, with elements of Iranian-Caucasian substratum.'

So perhaps more Samoyedic than Scythian.

'We tried to overcome the misunderstanding, but sadly it didn't work.'

Benacer
09-19-2013, 02:59 AM
Those are some pretty neat tats there.


I particularly like this one:

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/tattoo%20on%20hand%20and%20with%20a%20drawing%20of %20dear.jpg
They really are quite impressive.

Smeagol
09-19-2013, 03:01 AM
The Princess of Ukok is not related to any of the Asian races, the scientists are convinced. She is not related, evidently, to the present day inhabitants of Altai. Moreover, she had a European appearance, it has been claimed.

'There was a moment of gross misunderstanding when a legend came about this mummy being a foremother of people of Altai,' said Molodin.

'The people of Pazyryk belonged to different ethnic group, in no way related to Altaians. Genetic studies showed that the Pazyryks were a part of Samoyedic family, with elements of Iranian-Caucasian substratum.'

So perhaps more Samoyedic than Scythian.

'We tried to overcome the misunderstanding, but sadly it didn't work.'

Well that doesn't make much sense because Samoyeds are an Asian race indigenous to Siberia.

Manifest Destiny
09-19-2013, 03:05 AM
I wonder of she has a tramp-stamp?

Anglojew
09-19-2013, 03:21 AM
I think this is what the original Haplogroup Q's looked like.

Atlantic Islander
09-19-2013, 03:23 AM
How fascinating. The tattoos are quite beautiful.

Sidenote: I can imagine tattoo enthusiasts taking the images to a tattoo parlor to be used as a reference or even copied image by image.

Great post Kazimiera. :)

blogen
09-19-2013, 03:31 AM
Well that doesn't make much sense because Samoyeds are an Asian race indigenous to Siberia.

Now and only a part of the Samoyeds, but their ancestors lived on the forest-steppe and the taiga in the antiquity and the Selkups and Kamassians today. And they were much more Europo-Mongolid before the Turko-Mongol era, than everybody in Asia.

http://finland.fi/finfo/images/langua1_b.jpg

An the ancient Samoyeds, than the Ugrians were the parts of the steppic Iranian cultural horizont.

Kazimiera
09-19-2013, 03:31 AM
I found some bright spark's article that said HER haplogroup is R1a.

Vesuvian Sky
09-19-2013, 03:43 AM
The Altai authorities have now declared the remote mountain area from where the princess and her kinsmen were buried as a 'zone of peace' where no more excavations will take place, despite the near-certain treasures lying in the permafrost.

Such work amounts to plundering, they believe.

To Molodin, who found the male mummy several years after the princess, this deprives the world of a valuable scientific inheritance. He argues, too, that the issue is critical since global warming means the ancient bodies will decay.

Scientists reckon there are thousands of burial mounds here, hundreds of which date to the Pazyryk period, many of which may contain answers to questions about where we come from.


This I find unfortunate but its a problem that plagues archaeology all over the world: the contemporary populations' cultural concerns applied to past cultural horizons (that may or may not directly relate to them) ultimately trumping scientific inquiry. Truthfully, if archaeologists don't get to sites first, far worse people will. There is indeed valuable information we can learn from such pasts and preservation isn't always guaranteed by deeming the area a "hands off zone".

Prisoner Of Ice
09-20-2013, 03:24 AM
The part that's annoying is generally the people making a stink are ABSOLUTELY NOTHING TO DO WITH THE PEOPLE WHO WERE BURIED and often do it just to keep that fact hidden. No chumash for example, was in "chumash" lands 500 years ago but they have demanded the return of some 5k year old skeletons to be reburied on their reservation.

Kazimiera
01-27-2015, 05:27 PM
Face of tattooed mummified princess finally revealed after 2,500 years

Source: http://siberiantimes.com/science/casestudy/features/f0052-face-of-tattooed-mummified-princess-finally-revealed-after-2500-years/

Taxidermy expert uses painstaking techniques to create first ever replica of the ice maiden found preserved in the Siberian high altitude plateau.

http://siberiantimes.com/upload/information_system_38/1/9/5/item_1956/information_items_1956.jpg
'One of the most significant archaeological discoveries of the 20th century'. Picture: The Siberian Times

The first replica face has been created of the famous tattooed Siberian princess found mummified and preserved after almost 2,500 years in permafrost. A Swiss expert has used special taxidermy techniques to build an accurate reconstruction of the ice maiden who was uncovered by archaeologists in 1993.

Known as Princess Ukok, after the high altitude plateau on which she was discovered, her body was decorated in the best-preserved, and most elaborate, ancient art ever found. While her discovery was exciting, particularly given how intact her remains were, her face and neck skin had deteriorated, with no real clue as to what she once looked like.

However, now her face has been revealed to the world for the first time following the work by Swiss taxidermist Marcel Nyffenegger.

Mr Nyffenegger, who lives in the small town of Schaffhausen, was asked to work on a likeness of Princess Ukok for the Historical Museum of the Palatinate in Speyer, Germany. While he has expertise in stuffing animals, his main passion is the reconstruction of the faces of ancient peoples, including the Neanderthals.

Working with a 3-D model of the mummy’s skull, he spent a month painstakingly piecing together her facial muscles and tissue layers as well as reconstructing her skin structure, eyes and expression.

The resulting plasticine model was then covered with silicone and a rubber-resin mixture before finer details such as eyebrows and eyelashes were added. More than 100,000 individual strands of hair were used to give the princess her flocking locks, a process that in itself took two whole weeks.

'That two weeks took me to the brink of insanity', the expert confessed. 'I didn’t spend more than two or three hours a day on that part because it was very boring and neck pain literally forced me to do something else'.

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/SCIENCE/Princess-Ukok-face-restored/inside%20three%20faces%20together.jpg

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/SCIENCE/Princess-Ukok-face-restored/inside%20scientist.jpg
The reconstruction of Princess Ukok is on display at the museum in Germany. Pictures: Marcel Nyffenegger

The mummy was excavated by Novosibirsk scientist Natalia Polosmak and was heralded as 'one of the most significant archaeological discoveries of the 20th century'.

Thought to be about 25 years old when she died, she was found preserved in permafrost in the Altai Mountains at an altitude of about 2,500 metres, with two men also discovered nearby. Buried around her were six horses, saddled and bridled and said to have been her spiritual escorts to the next world, along with a meal of sheep and horse meat.

Archaeologists also found ornaments made from felt, wood, bronze and gold as well as a small container of cannabis and a stone plate on which coriander seeds were burned. From her clothes and possessions including a 'cosmetics bag', scientists were able to recreate her fashion and beauty secrets.

She was dressed in a long shirt made from Chinese silk, and had long felt sleeve boots with a beautiful decoration on them. At this time Chinese silk was only ever found in royal burials of the Pazyrk people, and since it was more expensive than gold it gave an indication of her wealth and status.

Her head was completely shaved, and she wore a horse hair wig on top of which was a carving of a wooden deer.

The princess’s face and neck skin was not preserved, but the skin of her left arm survived. The most exciting discovery was her elaborate body art, which many observers said bore striking similarities to modern-day tattoos. On her left shoulder was a fantastical mythological animal made up of a deer with a griffon’s beak and a Capricorn’s antlers. The antlers themselves were decorated with the heads of griffons.

The mouth of a spotted panther with a long tail could also be seen, and she had a deer’s head on her wrist.

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/SCIENCE/Princess-Ukok-face-restored/NEW%20first%20picture,%20shoulder%20tattoo.jpg

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/SCIENCE/Princess-Ukok-face-restored/inside%20face%20alone.jpg
'The face is very accurate to how Princess Ukok actually looked'. Pictures: The Siberian Times, Marcel Nyffenegger

She is believed to have been between 25 and 28 years old and about 1.62 metres tall. Her remains were treated by the same scientists in Moscow who preserved the body of former Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. Being able to see what she once looked like is an exciting development for archaeologists and historians.

Marcel, whose Twitter account features images of his reconstructions of Neanderthal man, said he believes the face is very accurate to how Princess Ukok actually looked. He said: 'With such a soft tissue reconstruction, purely based on the bone structure, we have achieved an accuracy of 75 per cent of the former appearance of the woman. The remaining 25 per cent was our interpretation since, for example, we were missing parts of the nasal bone and thus an accurate reconstruction was not possible.

'The scull itself shows where the muscles were located and which form and thickness they had and shows the points at which the skin lied directly on the bone.

'And as for the facial expressions, it is important that I feel the person that I am creating. The more information the archaeologists give me, such as in which climate the people lived, what they ate, and if they were a warrior or a farmer, then the better I can do'.

Last year the Siberian Times told how Princess Ukok is set to be buried in her own special mausoleum, with plans submitted for a permanent memorial and final resting place. She spent most of the past two decades at a scientific institute in Novosibirsk, and is now at the Republican National Museum in Gorno-Altaisk, sparking anger among the local people in the Altai Mountain region who want her re-buried.

Ancient beliefs dictate that her presence in the burial chamber had been to “bar the entrance to the kingdom of the dead”. Elders insisted that removing the mummified remains meant this doorway to the other world is now open and that her anger has already caused a series of floods and earthquakes.

But now the revered princess could finally be repatriated to her original resting place in the Ukok plateau, with a beautiful mausoleum built on top.

The reconstruction of Princess Ukok is on display at the museum in Germany.

Shah-Jehan
01-27-2015, 05:30 PM
http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/SCIENCE/Princess-Ukok-face-restored/inside%20face%20alone.jpg

Looks very Iranid, not even joking, but archaic

Hweinlant
01-27-2015, 05:43 PM
http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK/tattoo%20on%20hand%20and%20with%20a%20drawing%20of %20dear.jpg
Princess Ukok's shoulder, tattoo of fantastic animal, and a drawing of it made by Siberian scientists

This motif is called "Cosmic deer" or "Cosmic reindeer". There is plenty of information available by googling: cosmic + deer + scythian.

Hweinlant
01-27-2015, 05:44 PM
I found some bright spark's article that said HER haplogroup is R1a.

Her mtdna is U4 .

Plague Doctor
06-08-2015, 03:42 AM
Archaic Iranian/Iranic?

Litvinski
06-08-2015, 07:00 AM
Archaic Iranian/Iranic?

Yes. This "Princess" was one of Scytho-Siberians of the Pazyryk culture, in the Altai region.

The Scythian civilization at its peak covered most of the Eurasian steppe - from Crimea to Altai:

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Irina_Panyushkina/publication/260249780_Climate-induced_changes_in_population_dynamics_of_Siberian _Scythians_%28700-250_BC%29/links/542965720cf2e4ce940db5b5.pdf


The elite Siberian Scythians in the remote outskirts of the Eurasian Steppe had access to fine Chinese silk, Persian rugs, and Greek pottery [Rudenko, 1970; Polosmak, 2001; Parzinger, 2006]. Their prosperity allowed them to have slaves, possess lavish golden outfits weighing many kilograms, and elaborate their burials with mummified bodies, dozens of horses, and wooden chambers replicating dwellings. (...) The archaeological artifacts decorated with distinctive animal-style art of Scythians found in burial sites remain the best evidence confirming the existence of interconnected cultural communities across the Eurasian Steppe. Mobility associated with horseback riding was the key element to the wealth and social development of these tribes [Levine et al., 2003]. The Scythian economy heavily depended on livestock breeding (horses, cattle, sheep, and goats). The Siberian Scythians inhabited mountainous landscapes that offered diverse seasonally used vertical pastures. Multiple lines of archaeological evidence demonstrate vertical seasonal migration of Scythian horse breeders in central Asia based on settlement pattern.

In the Altai region there are more Scythian sites than from other periods combined:


The total number of Scythian structures surveyed within Altai's river basins varies between 64% and 45% of total registered archaeological and historical structures. This is strong evidence for high occupational density of Siberian Scythians in the studied area. Burial grounds of Siberian Scythians follow a common landscape pattern: rows of kurgans and stone enclosures associated with them were established on grasslands overlooking rivers (Figure 7A). A typical cemetery would have over a dozen kurgans organized in a single row, extended family assembly (Figure 7). Each kurgan has a dualor group burial (three to four human skeletons); single burials are a less common feature of the cemeteries [Kubarev, 1991; Derevyanko and Molodin, 2000]. Besides kurgans of commoners, this part of the Russian Altai has large kurgans of Pazyryk warriors (Ak-Alakha-3) and higher noble elite (Pazyryk-5).

During Scythian times population density in the region was high:


Overall, the burial grounds of Siberian Scythians are more spatially dense than burials of any other groups inhabiting Altai from 5000 B.C. to the present day. The high number of Scythian kurgans suggests a large population size. The modern rural population of the Russian Altai [RF-FSSS Statistics, 2011] is 149,409 people with 2.2 per km2 population density (Russian Census 2002). This is 50,000 people (one third) more than a century ago (Russian Census 1923) near the end of the Little Ice Age and long before modern technological impact on the Altaic nomadic population. If we assume that settlement patterns of the historic Altai population are similar to the Scythian pastoralists, as was demonstrated in studies on Bronze-Iron Age pastoralists of Kazakhstan and Mongolia [Frachetti, 2008; Houle, 2010], a feasible approximation of the lower bounds of Siberian Scythian population size is roughly 100,000 people (comparable to Altai nomadic population in the early twentieth century). However, because the Scythian burials far outnumber the modern and historical nomadic cemeteries, the upper bounds are more realistic in this case: ~260,000 people and higher (100,000 multiplied by 2.6, the average number of people buried in Scythian kurgans).

Scythians were descendants of speakers of Indo-European languages and people of Europoid (Caucasoid) anthropological type, who settled the previously uninhabited (or very sparsely inhabited) Altai region by the end of the 3rd millennium BC:


In the steppe region of central Asia and the Altai Mountains, the first food production began towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The peoples who entered this region were Europoids of the Afanasiev culture who came from the Aral Sea area (Kel’teminar culture).

Indo-European eastward migrations which led to Indo-European settlement of the Altai Mountains:

http://s4.postimg.org/9tawt4lct/andronovo3.jpg

First Proto-Indo-Europeans came to the Altai Mountains during the Copper Age and formed the Afanasiev Culture:


End of the 3rd millennium BC. Afanasiev Culture (Neolithic). The Afanasiev people were stockbreeders of cattle, sheep, horses, but also hunted wild game. The sites of this period are burial places under low mounds (kurgans) surrounded by circular stonewalls. Associated with burials were dentate stamped pots. Stone and bone tools were common although there were some copper ornaments.

The Afanasiev Culture was most likely the home of Proto-Tocharians (among others):

http://www.theapricity.com/forum/showthread.php?173359-My-tree-of-R1-haplogroup-%28with-a-timeline-and-ethno-linguistic-data%29

http://s2.postimg.org/wrmkvnyix/Tocharian.png

http://s10.postimg.org/3tv4muvbt/PIE_Tree_Small.png

The Bronze Age Andronovo Culture was also Indo-European and most certainly the first homeland of speakers of Proto-Indo-Iranian (Aryans) - possibly also ancestors of some other Indo-European branches could be part of that culture. The most famous site is Arkaim:


Mid 2nd millennium BC Andronovo Culture (Bronze Age). The Altai Mt. region was an important source of metallic ores. Mining was actively conducted from the 14th to 3rd century BC. The Andronovo culture made use of metal tools and this represents a departure from the stone tools of the earlier Neolithic society. The Andronovo culture is very similar across the vast steppe region from the Don River in southern Russia to the Yeneissei River although there are some local features. In the western steppe, the Andronovo culture is known as the Timber Grave Culture (ancestor of the Scythians). Andronovo people lived in permanent settlements with up to 10 semi-subterranean houses built of logs (20 x 30 to 30 x 60 m). They grew wheat and millet and raised cattle, sheep, horses, and pigs. The diet seems to have been composed largely of dairy products and cereal grains. The most common remains are the stone enclosures with underground log tombs having jointed corners and gabled roofs or stone cists.

In Arkaim the oldest known to date representations of Swastika have been found, a symbol few thousand years later adopted by a certain German political party. Sintashta-Arkaim also contains the oldest evidence of chariots:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sintashta_culture

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkaim

Among successors of the Andronovo Culture was the Karasuk Culture:


1200 - 700 BC Karasuk Culture (Bronze Age). The Karasuk culture developed out of the Andronoo culture and contains evidence of contact with Asiatic Mongoloid cultures. There was a shift from settled agriculture to patterns of seasonal transhumance and a semi-nomadic life style. The primary emphasis was on sheep rearing. Burials were in stone cists covered over by a low mound surrounded by square stone enclosures. The dead were buried with a sheep, a steer or a horse. The large cemeteries indicate a larger population. In the Karasuk culture there were a large amount of bronze artifacts, woolen textiles as well as garments of skins and furs. The remains of bridles towards the end of the period suggest the beginning of horse riding on the steppe.

That culture led to development of the Scythian Pazyryk Culture, as well as other - such as Tagar Culture and later Tachtyk Culture.

The Scythian civilization had a global impact - they facilitated trade across Eurasia. Now Chinese goods could reach Europe and European goods could reach China for the first time (among Western Eurasian imports to China from that period - or rather from the earlier Andronovo-Karasuk period -, was chariot):


The term "Siberian Scythians" refers to seminomadic tribes occupying the heart of Eurasia: Altai-Sayan Mountains during the first millennium B.C. Broadly, these tribes were a part of the Scythian world reaching from the Black Sea region to Lake Baykal over 4000 km and thriving for about 800 years. It was a very dynamic time across this vast geographical region designated the Eurasian Steppe and dominated by the economic strategies of mobile pastoralism. Royal families and local elites controlled and facilitated south-north and west-east trading routes on a truly global scale [Jacobson, 1995]. (...) Three distinctive episodes of Altai climate change appear to be tracking three major cultural phases of the Siberian Scythians advancement: (1) 700 – 480 B.C., coldand highly variable climate; (2) 480 – 360 B.C., mild warm climate and stable environmental conditions; and (3) 360 – 250 B.C., turbulent cold climate with amplified decadal variability.

Area where chariot was invented over 4000 years ago (oldest chariots found so far) and the spread of chariot (China acquired chariot ca. 1600 BC):

http://www.poloneum.com/csp.gif

But in period 280 - 240 BC the eastern part of the Scythian world - the Scytho-Siberians in the Altai - disappeared. The population emigrated:


High adaptation to climate combined with high mobility may have motivated dispersal of the Pazyryk people to explore and conquer new environments. Overall, climate variability reliably tracks Pazyryk population growth between 750 and 520 B.C. and then again from 340 to 275 B.C. Enhanced climate variance leads to dispersal of the population and southward migration across the Altai. A brief cold episode at 360 - 350 B.C. resulted in relocation and concentration of the Pazyryk population in the south-eastern Altai. The last contraction of Pazyryk populationoccurred in warm decades before 250 B.C., after which mortuary evidence of Pazyryk population disappeared from the Altai landscape. The decrease in density of kurgans datedwith tree rings may point to the dispersal of the Pazyryk population from the Altai, which began during warm decades of the first millennium B.C. (280 - 240 B.C.). There may be more than one plausible scenario of Scythian routes for withdrawal from the Altai.

A Russian museum allowed the locals to re-bury the mummy of the "Siberian Ice Maiden", whom they consider to be their mythical ancestor.

Another famous Scytho-Siberian female mummy is the "Ukok Princess" with beautiful tatoos. There are also well-equipped graves of warriors and chieftains.

"The Ukok plateau, Altai, Siberia, where Princess and two warriors were discovered. Their bodies were surrounded by six horses fully bridles, various offering of food and a pouch of cannabis":

http://siberiantimes.com/PICTURES/FEATURES/CULTURE/PRINCESS-UKOK-CLOTHES/UKOK%20plateau,%20for%20inside%20the%20story.jpg

The mummy of the "Ukok Princess" (died aged 25) with tatoos:

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-xNsV8ARnHKo/U4oBTKuixtI/AAAAAAAArdk/fFutOjewBhw/s1600/93972694.jpg
http://i.imgur.com/XQppR.jpg

Reconstruction:

http://rt.com/files/news/2c/43/c0/00/rian_00784189.hr.en_copy.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Ukok_princess_reconstruction.jpg

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2188157/The-astonishing-2-500-year-old-tattoos-Siberian-princess--little-changed-art.html#ixzz3S3EcEDS6


The Siberian Times said: "The tattoos on the left shoulder of the 'princess' show a mythological animal - a deer with a griffon's beak and a Capricorn's antlers. 'The antlers are decorated with the heads of griffons.

'And the same griffon's head is shown on the back of the animal.

The mouth of a spotted panther with a long tail is seen at the legs of a sheep.

'She also has a dear's head on her wrist, with big antlers.

'There is a drawing on the animal's body on a thumb on her left hand.

'On the man found close to the 'princess', the tattoos include the same fantastical creature, this time covering the right side of his body, across his right shoulder and stretching from his chest to his back.

'The patterns mirror the tattoos on a much more elaborately covered male body dug from the ice in 1929 whose highly decorated torso in reconstructed in our drawing here.

'His chest, arms, part of the back and the lower leg are covered with tattoos. There is an argali - a mountain sheep - along with the same dear with griffon's vulture-like beak, with horns and the back of its head which has griffon's head and an onager drawn on it.'

And here is the "Siberian Ice Maiden" (also known as the "Amazon from Ak-Alach"):

https://twitter.com/praeparator

"Bone structure showed she was a skilled rider and bow woman, hence the Greek legends of the Amazones seem to be real. The 'Amazon' was buried together with a man and with horses in a big double grave in a Kurgan":

https://pbs.twimg.com/media/B8sOd0ICIAA0eiZ.jpg:large

Litvinski
06-08-2015, 07:06 AM
Her mtdna is U4 .

Thanks! Added to the chart of Bronze Age and Iron Age Indo-European steppe DNA:

http://s4.postimg.org/5gjpqzz31/Steppe_Phenotypes.png

http://s4.postimg.org/5gjpqzz31/Steppe_Phenotypes.png

Litvinski
06-08-2015, 07:50 AM
Most of Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Indo-Iranians from the Eurasian steppe later either migrated south (to India, Iran, the Middle East and Asia Minor - where they established their realms) or stayed in the steppe and were eventually overwhelmed and assimilated into Turkic and Tatar peoples. The easternmost groups which preserved their IE language until today are the Iranian-speaking Tajiks and Sarikoli of Western China. They are still in 45% people of R1a haplogroup today (Wells, Spencer et al. 2001). Their 2nd most common hg is probably J:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarikoli_language

A video showing these people:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAQpdNEWpng


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAQpdNEWpng

noricum
06-08-2015, 10:29 AM
Documentary about the dig in 4 parts:

<iframe width="420" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/oqWCEqMEbgE" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

Arhat
06-08-2015, 04:10 PM
Most of Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Indo-Iranians from the Eurasian steppe later either migrated south (to India, Iran, the Middle East and Asia Minor - where they established their realms) or stayed in the steppe and were eventually overwhelmed and assimilated into Turkic and Tatar peoples. The easternmost groups which preserved their IE language until today are the Iranian-speaking Tajiks and Sarikoli of Western China. They are still in 45% people of R1a haplogroup today (Wells, Spencer et al. 2001). Their 2nd most common hg is probably J:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarikoli_language

A video showing these people:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAQpdNEWpng


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAQpdNEWpng
Pamiri Tajiks are on overall genetics closest to Old Indo-Iranians among modern Indo-Iranian people and have much R1a (mostly around 40% but some isolated "tribes" have more than 60%) but R1a peaks today among Pashtuns and Northwest Indians. If you remove the east asian ancestry from Kazakh and Kyrgyz you get probably almost pure Indo-Iranians and the non-east asian part of them looks like 50% Pamiri Tajik/Pashtun and 50% Russian/Finno-Ugrian.

Litvinski
07-01-2015, 08:58 PM
Pamiri Tajiks are on overall genetics closest to Old Indo-Iranians among modern Indo-Iranian people and have much R1a (mostly around 40% but some isolated "tribes" have more than 60%) but R1a peaks today among Pashtuns and Northwest Indians. If you remove the east asian ancestry from Kazakh and Kyrgyz you get probably almost pure Indo-Iranians and the non-east asian part of them looks like 50% Pamiri Tajik/Pashtun and 50% Russian/Finno-Ugrian.

Pashtuns have probably ca. 40% - 45% of their autosomal DNA derived from Sintashta culture (in case of Y-DNA even more, ca. 50% - 70%):

http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/30940-Autosomal-analysis-of-Yamna-Corded-Ware-and-Bell-Beaker-samples?p=461363&viewfull=1#post461363

More here:

http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?4640-Population-genomics-of-Bronze-Age-Eurasia-%28Allentoft-et-al-2015%29&p=93441&viewfull=1#post93441


I have used an input ancestral population with similar admixture as modern Armenians. This change from above results in repositioning of Population X. Under this scenario, Pashtuns can be modeled as 43% Sintashta + 38% BA population similar in admix to modern Armenians + 19% Pop X, with Pop X's position being shifted from above.

http://s22.postimg.org/47gffo5yp/ful5lry.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sintashta_culture


The Sintashta culture, also known as the Sintashta-Petrovka culture[1] or Sintashta-Arkaim culture,[2] is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of the northern Eurasian steppe on the borders of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, dated to the period 2100–1800 BCE.[3] The earliest known chariots have been found in Sintashta burials, and the culture is considered a strong candidate for the origin of the technology, which spread throughout the Old World and played an important role in ancient warfare.[4] Sintashta settlements are also remarkable for the intensity of copper mining and bronze metallurgy carried out there, which is unusual for a steppe culture.[5]

Because of the difficulty of identifying the remains of Sintashta sites beneath those of later settlements, the culture was only recently distinguished from the Andronovo culture.[2] It is now recognised as a separate entity forming part of the 'Andronovo horizon'.[1]

(...)

The people of the Sintashta culture are thought to have spoken Proto-Indo-Iranian, the ancestor of the Indo-Iranian language family. This identification is based primarily on similarities between sections of the Rig Veda, an Indian religious text which includes ancient Indo-Iranian hymns recorded in Vedic Sanskrit, with the funerary rituals of the Sintashta culture as revealed by archaeology.[11]

The Kalash and the Tajiks also speak Indo-Iranian languages, and share many genetic similarities with the Pashtuns. All these groups also show ancestral genetic similarities with various North-Eastern and Eastern Europeans, such as for example Lithuanians:

http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?4640-Population-genomics-of-Bronze-Age-Eurasia-%28Allentoft-et-al-2015%29&p=93207&viewfull=1#post93207


Also, [B]the IBD links [of ancient Sintashta people and modern Pashtuns] are pretty strong, despite the fact that the samples aren't of ideal quality for IBD analysis, and despite the fact that it is very hard to detect IBD over the time scale which currently concerns us. I don't know where this notion stems from.

In addition, Sintashta have the right R1a1a subclades. We can be 100% certain that 50%-70% of Pashtun males are direct descendants of Sintashta and/or it's descendant/related steppe cultures. Even the mtDNA shows links. Taking this into consideration, it is of no real surprise that Pashtuns are predominantly steppe-derived in terms of genome-wide ancestry.

Edit: Also, Pashtuns came out as 66% Lithuanian-admixed in ALDER*, not qpAdm. This was more than a year ago. At the time, I dismissed the results. But now, it seems that Everest was on to something.

http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?4640-Population-genomics-of-Bronze-Age-Eurasia-%28Allentoft-et-al-2015%29&p=93179&viewfull=1#post93179


3) The Pashtun-Sintashta fits are always the best fits produced by this software, probably because Sintashta are directly ancestral to Pashtuns and company (a fact borne out by the presence of R1a1a lineages in Sintashta which are the exact same lineages found in anywhere from around 50% to 70% of Pashtun males. Also, Sintashta and Andronovo in Allentoft et al. have a hefty share of mtDNA U2 lineages, which constitute the largest share of the modern Pashtun mtDNA gene pool). If they were a broad proxy for general steppe admixture, the fits would be great, but not as amazingly excellent as they are now.

Just something to think about.

(...)

Edit: Everest once used ALDER (another piece in the ADMIXTOOLS package) on the HGDP Pashtuns. With Lithuanians, he got Pashtuns to be 66% Lithuanian-admixed. That is quite close to the Sintashta percentages. Here is what he wrote to me:

"Interesting. Alder can calculate admixture % using just 1 reference samples. I tried computer admixture % for Pashtuns using Georgians, Sindhis and then Lithuanians. The admixture using Lithuanian was a whopping 66%."

*ALDER is this software: http://groups.csail.mit.edu/cb/alder/

IBD = Identity By Descent:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_by_descent


A DNA segment is identical by state (IBS) in two or more individuals if they have identical nucleotide sequences in this segment. An IBS segment is identical by descent (IBD) in two or more individuals if they have inherited it from a common ancestor without recombination, that is, the segment has the same ancestral origin in these individuals.

"The IBD links are pretty strong" = they share a lot of common ancestors, or one is descended from the other one.

========================

On the left - modern ethnically Tajik, Iranian-speaking woman:

On the right - "Amazon of Ak-Alach", Pazyryk culture, died around year 450 BC:

http://s2.postimg.org/9qe5lf8jd/Tajik_vs_Scythian.png

Some more Tajiks:

http://pastmist.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/_pamiri-girls-in-vanj1.jpg

http://www.amoeba.com/admin/uploads/blog/Eric_B/pamiri.jpg

https://c1.staticflickr.com/7/6206/6153313602_ff1cc07d3f_b.jpg

http://s30.postimg.org/bvrx2m6rl/Tajik_Pamirid.png


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvH9ZiJKbIc

Kalash people:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SufjwTQ8fLo

Pashtuns:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bKlvYrmrjU

Litvinski
07-01-2015, 08:59 PM
As for the Kalash people - here is the most recent genetic study on them:

http://www.cell.com/ajhg/abstract/S0002-9297%2815%2900137-8

Sally the first
08-07-2015, 05:32 PM
that's very interesting

aksakallicocuk
08-07-2015, 05:38 PM
These guys are ancestral to Turkic peoples.