The vicissitudes of time and problem Alevi identity in Bulgaria

Rate this Entry
The first author was interested in relevant literature is ethnographer Dimitar Marinov. Intriguing feature of "'This so interesting tribe in our country, which differs from Turks and Bulgarians, "he poses the problem of its origin.
Perfectly clear that Marinov had no knowledge of these things and his works are haracterized by inconsistency in terms of hypothesis. It seems he was not fully convinced in his
personal position offers. The "People's faith and religious folk customs ", he writes:" Here I will only mention my firm conclusion that
Casalbashi these would have been Christians ever Bogomils, and then through great violence were forced to accept Islam. Their nationality I would say without hesitation that they are Bulgarians. In his other article D.
Marinov said that "historical evidence of the Turkish historian that Casalbashi are Turkish tribe and differ only by the Turks in that
Aliyev's followers are "must be taken with caution . Author notes that their language is actually the same as the Turks, but this same language they speak and Gagauz. "According to him, the assumption origin of Gagauz can be extended to Casalbashi. A namely that Casalbashi and Gagauz can be considered
residues Pechenegs or Kumani. Launching this view, he concludes that "religion should not disturb us at all." To support claim, relying on the file between Boris I and Pope
Nicholas Mystic, Marinov said that in Bulgaria before the Christianity would have crept Muslim missionaries. In this spirit Marinov said that Bulgaria was "mohamedans" and books
Moslem religious content. We can not support this hypothesis of documentary sources.
In studies of Marinov stand two hypotheses
ethnogenesis of Alevi:
1. Bogomil that connects them with ethnic
Bulgarian component, and religious - the Christian heresy -
2. Pechenegs -Kuman
For we know that people of Turkic origin came from the steppes of Central Asia and
invaded Byzantium in I-half of the eleventh century in 1048-50, in
Byzantine frontier province "Danube Bulgaria" stay
huge mass pechenegs. Tribe "Pechenegs" is contained in the work of Mahmud al-Kashgar from XI century - "Divan-i Lugat-i Turk"
/ Rally Turkic dictionary /. Main camp is northeast of the Pechenegs
Bulgaria, although displaced in Sofia, and Macedonia, and along Osum, about the sources of the Danube River and Rosica Vidima.
Science belongs to the Turkic Pechenegs or branch of Altai Most Ural - Altaic language group.
The origin of the other component, Cumans have different theories and assumptions, which will not stop, but is considered
assumed that they are also people of Turkic origin and their language was similar to
that of the Pechenegs. Many records show that also Koumanian belonged to the Turkic group languages. We know from 60 years of
Kumans eleventh century began to play a significant role in the territories of
former First Bulgarian Kingdom.
In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century Bulgarian history
Science won its place the notion that lead Gagauz ancestry from Old-time Cumans, and etc. "Gadjali" / Turkish-Muslim population living Deliorman / are descendants of the Pechenegs. Moshkov argues that these Pechenegs, including Islam was spread more in
lands located and preserved their religion, even in an age of Ottoman rule. Peter Mutavchiev rejects the assumption that today's Turks may be looking for remnants of the Bulgars, but considered more reasonable
claim that these remains can be searched by Turkic or close to the Turkic tribes invaded here in XI - XII C. Based on
linguistic studies of T. Kowalski, he promoted the view that Today's Turkish speaking population in northeastern Bulgaria leads
back to the ethnic changes in XI - XIII century
Tadeusz Kowalski, based on parallels between the Gagauz and deliorman Turkish dialect, found that between them have close
parentage in a number of features characteristic of nord Turkic dialects.
This gives grounds to constitute in particular language group - Danub Turkic containing nord Turkic elements in language missing
of Anatolian Turks.
As a result of these scientific assumptions and hypotheses in the Bulgarian historiography opinion there is an underlying part of the north, across the Danube time of settlement of the people here, including the Alevi.
North direction in the lineage of Turkish-Muslim
population / and in particular the Alevi / has another aspect. It consists in Proto-Bulgarian theory of their origin. After the Bulgarian
historians have Turan theory of the origin of
Proto, brothers Herman and Karel Shkorpil suggested that today's Moslem population Deliorman - Gadjals and Christian Gagauz in Eastern Bulgaria are remnants of old
non-Slavic Bulgars. This position is seen by D. Zanetov who mastered assumption Shkorpil brothers that Deliorman Turks descendants of Bulgarians Asparukh says: "They must have to be attributed to Turks and Casalbashi of Balbunar, Silistra and Varna. "
P. Mutavchiev however believes that the hypothesis of proto-origin of the Turkish speaking population could hardly be
sufficiently justified. Its base is only general geographical localization of both groups. According Mutavchiev difficult to
assume that ensconced among the Slav sea Proto could in Over such a long period to maintain their ethnic face.
We see that here deduced theories of Alevi in
particular indicate an overlapping of different ethnic and religious layers in the era of the early Middle Ages and true not on a very wide range, such as northeastern Bulgaria.
In our historiography finds its followers as the thesis on Bogomil origin of Alevi and for their nord Turkic ancestry, seen in these two aspects -
1. From Pechenegs and Cumans;
2. From Proto-Bulgars.

Without question some arguments which are based on the above hypotheses, I will say that popularity gained in these views
80s. Citizenship, which was given the resonance of pressure from state and political nature. Apparently they were disguised or
a scientific basis to justify the "revival process".
Indeed, theory postulated Proto-Bulgarian is also divided into two versions. In the first, Kazalbashi / other Turks / are residues of those Bulgarians who have retained their pagan rituals and were not Christianized, or were slightly Christianized.
We can only speculate about the existence of such residues, but strong resistance against conversion boiladite talking about vitality of pagan religion and Proto tradition. Sources indicate that during the rebellion Boris freed ordinary people participated in it. According to another version Casalbashi residues were Proto - Turkic, accepted Christianity, but retained as a language and custom compact, without mixing with Slavs.
Supporters of these hypotheses in part, without argue documentary and based on similar ethnographic / Customary ritual / performance are Vasil Marinov, Lubomir
Miletic, D. Gadzhanov, Evg. Teodorov, Emil Boev, K. Venedikov, p. Dimitrov. Is correct to point out that not all of these authors are
avowed defenders of the above theory. Some / most consistently Page. Dimitrov / build this picture, based on comprehensive analysis of complex ethnic and religious mosaic in Northeast Bulgaria.
Prof. L. Miletich in his study of old Bulgarian population Northeastern Bulgaria questions the ethnogenesis of the Turkish
Deliorman population. In his expeditions he heard stories "that they are old people, did not come from Asia Minor, such as Turks from
Tuzluka. "17 But when talking about rural Alvanlar / Yablanovo / Kyuchyukler / Little Village / Veletler / Mogilets / notes that are home "Turkish sectarians, old settlers from
"Ali" or "Casalbashi. '"
It is clear that distinguishes Miletic
Genetically speaking Turkish groups in different regions of North Bulgaria. Since his vision is not elude the specifics of the Alevi and they did warrant a finding that "the Turkish language group from treba
pure Turks are distinguished Gagauz and Ali / Kazalbashi /. "
Miletich said of villages live Alevi Bektashi by branch. Miletic is also controversial in its opinion as to refuse without opportunity to have settlers from Asia Minor, he admits that may be Bulgarians-Christians converted to Islam.
E. Gadzhanov show serious interest in problems of various Islamic trends in the Bulgarian lands and the Balkans. In
research on the ethnography of the area Gerlovo he notes that "Gerlovska throughout the valley are very popular Bulgarian
customs, and pagan-Christian beliefs and superstitions. "
Gadzhanov said total Gerlovo Muslims and non-case basis peculiarities in the customs and religion of the villages inhabited by orthodox Muslims and those with unorthodox adepts of Islam. It states only specifics, which he says have a great similarity with Bulgarian and Christian traditions. The eye of the connoisseur, however, will notice that the described Traditions are respected by Muslims principaly - Alevi.
Because of the apparent external similarity of these traditions with the Bulgarian Christian traditions, he characterized them precisely as such. He concludes that "all beliefs and traditions speak in favor of the presence
the Bulgarian element in this region. "
21 Gadzhanov supports the view expressed
from L. Miletich for "mohamedanization Turkicisation and the old Bulgarian population in Gerlovo "but specifies that it does not
refer to all Gerlovo people - they are neither Turks only, nor only Mohammedanized Bulgarians.
In another article Gadzhanov focuses quite extensively on Muslim sects / including kazalbashi/.
Here he raise questions about their religion and customs in other, more plausible Light. In this work he tries to exit from the core of the problem linking them with occurred in the first century AH divide Islam. Here he offers another hypothesis about their origin. According to her resettlement of prisoners Casalbashi in European Turkey, which are
preserved until today dates back to the wars with Selim I. "Persian heretics." It is seen that Gadzhanov was more familiar detailed
by the above authors to literature on Islam and the Ottoman Turkey. In their study Gadzhanov than religious, ethnic and gives
qualification Casalbashi, calling them intentionally or unintentionally "Persians." I consider it necessary to clarify that the Shiite religious identification Sefevid country occupying territories of present-day without malice, but because ignorance is creeps and 'Persian' theory of ethnicity Casalbashi. Study the works of Yovkov Dimo Minev wrote that
Dolen Sourcing / Chiflik Musubey / was composed of Casalbashi - Persians and Bulgarians.
Studying the detailed network Gerlovo habitation and Deliorman , Vasil Marinov is also confronted with the presence of the Alevi population Northeastern Bulgaria. It concerns the problem of their culture and traditions in several works. Give views of different authors
their background, and their advocated position. It is not entirely clarified and cleared of suspicion and controversy. C. Marinov cites
A. Hazhek opinion that after the Turkish conquest, many Bulgarians belonging to different sects, have voluntarily taken
mohamedans. Opinion of Fr. Babinger also harmonize with the claim that Deliorman was the center and the starting point of different
sects, which easily passed the Muslim sects.
Today representatives of the old sects Marinov sees the face of "Aliyanite, and Casalbashi shiaa" .
This theory corresponds Bogomil thesis on the origin of concerned community. And the author thinks of Christian or influenced by the Christian holidays that comply with this population:
"For example, they observe all the Christian holidays, particularly Elijah and St. George, and slaughtered sacrifice, light candles, do not attend mosques and etc. "Tekkes" Cherkvitsa or old. "
He heard a story that Gerlovo "women were mostly old Bulgarian alliance, forced women taken by the Turks, and they who want to be respected Christian holidays. " This statement, defended by some research community was also paving in society
justification for the revival process in the period 1984-89, the practice Muslim leaders to take Christian women really existed, but we can hardly prove that those who came early
Alevi mass is married to a Bulgarian. I think that given the strictly closed and homogeneous nature of kazalbashkata community specifics of its operation and the requirement that a marriage concluded
ednogamen be similar statement seems off. At least I know previously stored in the still strong tradition and conservative alliance of community, it was impossible. We are not in
able to comment on how he was standing problem in the era of colonization of Casalbashi here. Undoubtedly some cases of concluding such marriages would have had to say that some fragmentary memories
some villages. However, they were isolated cases and can not be indicator of a ubiquitous process.
C. Marinov argued their case with clothing kazalbashian women, which is evidenced also Bobchev S. C. and D. Gadzhanov. Kazalbashian
female costume worn by the late nineteenth century daily and then only as secret ritual clothing is one of the elements of material culture this population and is characterized by its completeness and perfection
precision work. One element of this costume is female etc. "Fita" / fata / and not a "petticoat," as Marinov. Gadzhanov, C.
Marinov,. Teodorov write that this outfit had nothing to do with what the real Turkish women and see it as a Christian or
Proto remains. Although rare, mixed marriages between Christians and Muslims
certainly was, if we trust the intelligence of European travelers. French diplomat Count D'rubs traveling through Eastern Bulgaria in 1785 gives us the data in this respect, although their undoubted overstatement. Passing through villages Shingles / today
Divdyadovo, Shumen / Kiali / estab. / Erubialar / today Stanovets, Shumen / Kushuflar / Weaver village, Shumen / inhabited by
Muslims and Christians, he was stunned ascertain that they live together
without being disrespectful to intermarry, drink bad wine together and distort
Ramadan and fasts. Clergymen of both religions - and imams Kings treated equally condescending to marriages of believers
two religions. Based only on this information we can not determine to what course belonged to the Muslim population in these villages - whether or not to orthodoxy. In more recent times in these villages is
no Alevi population, which is not an indication that this is not existed until the nineteenth century Knowing the psychology of the Turkish population and of the alliance,
I do not think written by Count D'rubs was common practice. Another is question if the population of these villages was soon adopted Islam. This question should be examined in more detail. But the French experience
diplomat is indicative of the presence of individual cases. All from the above authors have worked on the field and Listen before Casalbashi themselves concerning their origin. Among adults from the common view among Kazalbashi / Alevi / versions for this was
their arrival from Khorasan / province in North Iran /. C. Marinov and unquestioned "mass migration of Turks - aliyans the field of "Khorasan" - Persia Deliorman today. " By
it most of today are descendants of Casalbashi old Bulgarians to escape harassment by the Turks have become
Allianz. " But Marinov V. shines in ignorance and contradiction. In their presentations, it takes both views. Tu said to be
colonists from Asia Minor as far as Persia / Khorasan /, now that Mohammedanized
Bulgarians. "Once in deliorman population and confirmed what I said Casalbashi in Gerlovo - that came from Khorasan and argue
Vamberi Bobchev and must be considered to be positive in that Casalbashi
Bulgaria are settlers - colonists, mainly from northwestern Persia - Khorasan area. "But in describing the Alevi villages with population
Deliorman Gerlovo and noted that there are living "Bulgarians Casalbashi" .
Field studies of such closed confessional
communities for which we have enough source material is of special necessary. However, the researcher needs to make no biased towards those studies not previously exercised
build their argument for ethnogenesis and cultural-religious affiliation. It seems to me that this must be one of the criteria
for his scientific and human integrity.
In his later study, "Contribution to the study of life and Culture of the Turkish population in northeastern Bulgaria, "where
sets collected by him for field material and device functioning of the religious organization Kazalbashi / Alevi / C. Marinov wrote: "The national consciousness of Alevi Turks and speak Turkish dialect. By faith they are Muslims, sectarians. " That his registration statement is the situation found in 50 years
without commenting on what you like with Bulgarians - Christians and others
Turks, making in the earlier work. Many local scientists and museum workers passing concern or purposefully alliance issue. In the first half of the century is Anne. Yavashov and also anonymous authors in regional newspapers and More recently they have been Boris Iliev, Stoyan Stoyanov, Roumen Lipcheva, Ivan Kolev, Ivan Yakimov.
These authors do not deal in detail with the problem of Alian ethnogenesis, but are willing to accept those already mentioned that
are remnants of proto-Bulgarian, Christian or even more ancient population. Exception being made only Ivan Yakimov. Yavashov trying to impose in Bulgarian science that Alevi monastery "Demir Baba" is actually the famous tomb of Omurtag Khan, known from inscriptions found in the church "St. 40
martyrs "in Tarnovo. Protect a particular zest hypothesis advocates by some authors and scientists - S. Severnyak, Ev. Todorov, Ch. Stoykov. It must be stated that the works of these authors are more literary and
pursue patriotic rather than research purposes.
Comprehensive research undertaken by Razgrad Museum since 1972, proving that the turban can not be Tomb of Khan Municipality. Archaeologists and Stoyan Stoyanov, Ara Maryus after a serious analysis conclude that the monastery buildings have no relation to the construction of the tomb and Khan Omurtag in the ninth v.36 Tracing the tomb of Omurtag referred to in Turnovo inscription in the monastery Demir Baba is futile activity. All
attempts to apply it to preserved samples of the Proto-Bulgarian construction are unfounded. Arheomagnitnite research
that site indicate that the test material of construction monastery was constructed in the XVI century from the analysis of this material may be suggests that construction of turbans is in the middle of the same century.
My conclusion from my work on the life of Demir Baba shows the construction of tekke started in 1552 y. Scientists in Southern Bulgaria are encountering in Alevi Krumovgrad
district and observing their habits noted: "These are Muslims currently with the life, traditions and religious rites, there is almost nothing common with those of the Turks - Muslims ............, we shall inevitably have to
come to the conclusion that Ali live in this region much earlier than Turkish invasion, and that they are nothing but conversions Bulgarians. "
We see that in the not so scientific and popular works Casalbashi invariably displayed or Bulgarians, or islamicized Christian population. Another writer - Boris Iliev is clear that at the kazalbashian Teke "Demir Baba" in Sveshtari, Razgrad, was Thracian sanctuary of the god-horseman Heros. It starts from the fact that region of Isperih locate some of the most significant monuments. Thracian culture, but in the very near Teke - near "Kamen Ridge "were excavated remains of a Thracian fortress. At all Archaeological Science suggests that this region was located
capital of the Thracian kings of Gath.
Another reason B. Iliev, he saw some alliance
customs remnants of ancient Thracian games and Bacchanalia in honor of the god
Dionysus. He considered logical Thracian sanctuary of the god-horseman Heros have been converted into a church or monastery of St. George, and only in the in later centuries alliance tomb. In kazalbash customs of
St. George he sees similarities with the Bulgarian people, the ritual "Beshik" running on Hadrellez / 6.V. / he sees characters of olden
Thracian mysteries in honor of Dionysus and Semela. Same notes that legend of the giants, and build the other close to him Teke is
kept alive especially among "Casalbashi who for the most part are conversions local Bulgarian population has preserved many of the old their customs, and partly old Bulgarian clothing, and call themselves "Avoid the knife" / Kalic kachkana/.In another similar article B. Iliev, it takes the view for Islamisation of Casalbashi but not denied and the settlement of colonists, sectarians in northeastern Bulgaria. Still seems somewhat familiar with
Research on these issues, wrote that Alevism is brought from settlers at the time of Suleiman the Legislator / 1520 - 1566 years old /. But the author maintains that because most democratic and tolerance of the Alevi population is passed to it and welded
Aboriginal forced to change his faith. On the other hand, it circulates another legend, which
allegedly originating from among themselves Casalbashi - the legend that are "Kilic kachkana" / escaped the knife / and inherited customs, rites and oral traditions of the population here. I personally impugn that Alevi population is en bloc claimed that "Kilic kachkana." Living in this environment I have not heard such a claim. It seems to me that here we meet with a secondary myth
spread among these people after reading such publications. If been a switch from Christianity to Islam, sectarian, it is not was the result of a mass and forced conversion to Islam. Cases of acceptance of Islam by Christians was, but the reasons for this are economic and social. In the late sixteenth century in the Demir Baba Tekke are lived four Bulgarian farmhand families. Turkish historian Barca published on marginal vakafa tThe Tekke of Sara Saltak near Kaliakra by DEFTERI from 1022 / 21.ІІ.1613 - 10.ІІ.1614 years / In this DEFTERI as of water for popravyachi barrels and recorded two Christians - George
son of Demetrius and Taranika Vasso. Among the dervishes and was recorded with a
Abdullah. Surname in Ottoman studies assumed that "Abdullah" is indication of a recent conversion to Islam. These data suggest of Strashimir Dimitrov stated that the Teke continued to absorb local hristiyani.
For us it is known that the role of heterodox Muslim sanctuaries of peace propaganda of Islam was significant. The most impartial in respect of the early scientific research
Alevi is on the article by C. S. Bobchev, which represents a good basis upgrade to more detailed studies on the issue. Acknowledge and
influenced by the work before him, he is tempted by the idea "to discern whether there someone in their customs such purely Bulgarian or Christian, or traces of Christianity. " After talks with Casalbashi themselves and get acquainted with some foreign research, he summarized his conclusion as follows: "If there is something that divides deliormantsi of Casalbashi, it is their religious differences. "Despite the restrictions and taboos imposed by the principles of professed religious community of that doctrine indisputable merit of
C. S. Bobchev is that he was able to penetrate many features of their culture. I believe this is due to open-mindedness with which stepped forward to them. His theory of the origin goes like this:
"Casalbashi Turks and other deliormanians, language and largely degree in ethnic mores and customs, only religious concepts and their
confessions put them in hostility to other Muslim Turks - their co-residents ....... According to my information collected, verified
repeatedly, is a Shii Casalbashi / aliyan / sect in which introduced and developed some mystical and mysterious rites, rituals and
traditions. "Bobchev considered probable opinion Vamberi that are Casalbashi prisoners of war Iranian Turks around Azyurbeydzhan and Transcaucasia, which Sultans colonize various locations throughout the Balkans after the older wars Persiya. He concludes that no valid information on made the basis of hitherto wanted to believe that these are surviving the various vicissitudes of residues Proto.
Clearly we see that all of the hypotheses and theories Alevi ancestry stems problem for ethnic, and for their religious identity. This makes the impression of Constantine Irechek in his travels around the principality. Czech historian meeting people who identify as "schismatic Muslims, Casalbashi called. "
His remarks without giving details
shed light on some aspects of the ideology of these "Muslims schismatics, "which according to the stories of local people" drink wine, not
hide the women and bloodshed considered wrong. "" For their origin and faith knew only that they feel a little better than others
Turks and little care for the strict rules of the Koran. " Irechek brings opinions and Mordtman Vamberi on their origin. According to the Mordtman Casalbashi are not Shiites, but a kind "Free thinkers / free speech kind / that only external recognize Islam had mosques, but do not go, do not lose women and do not keep wine. "
These signs make an impression on all who are
had contact with these " free speech kind" have their own explanations, which we spirals place. Other monitoring Felix von Lushan on
tahtadzhi in Asia Minor contains guidelines for ethnic and religious affiliation. He states that "Casalbashi taken to bring red turbans, unlike in the other Turks, who wear white and they are aliyan a Shiite or sect. " So, in the research of the Bulgarian Humanities mid
twentieth century, when there is still no sufficient documentary and literature
on Islam, and targeted field studies are required several hypotheses for the origin of Casalbashi. The authors constructed
their hypotheses based on known and seen pictures of them, but Yet the paucity of recorded information. We can summarize them in follows:
1. According to the first residues are Turkic tribes - Pechenegs and Cumans who settled in the Bulgarian lands in the eleventh century

2. Second Casalbashi associated with residues of the Turkic Proto-Bulgarian population, "easily passed to sectarian Islam."

3. In the third, they belonged to the heretical Christian population - Bogomils, seeing that in common with sectarian
Islam passed to it.

4. The fourth hypothesis brings them out of the Christian population, forced to accept Islam under duress.

5. According to another hypothesis, they are Persian Turks, settled here from Ottoman sultans after the wars with Persia.

6. Some authors attributed them to the Persians, calling them "Casalbashi - Persians." Identifying them religiously with Iran, they do not distinguished by ethnic Persians. That error
allowed and Western chroniclers, travelers and diplomats State of characterizing kazalbashian Sefevi as Persian and qualified all sectarians who maintain it as "Persians".

In the 50s - 80s of the twentieth century interest in the alliance culture is growing. Successes have been achieved in the study of material and the customary ritual of Alevi culture. In this sense, can be referred to the work of C. Marinov, already quoted, of Iv Koev M. Vassileva, F. Ademov, H. Sivriev.
Particularly valuable in this respect is
collection "Bulgarian Alevi" representing traditions from two villages with Alevi population - Bisertsi and Savin, Razgrad district. His value increases by the fact that the authors are Alevi origin, coming from the villages and undoubtedly represent authentic

Submit "The vicissitudes of time and problem Alevi identity in Bulgaria" to Digg Submit "The vicissitudes of time and problem Alevi identity in Bulgaria" to del.icio.us Submit "The vicissitudes of time and problem Alevi identity in Bulgaria" to StumbleUpon Submit "The vicissitudes of time and problem Alevi identity in Bulgaria" to Google

Tags: None Add / Edit Tags