Whoever reads this, is blessed with a first, real, groundbreaking treatise on Türkic genetics that has a vision equipped with professional tools and not burdened by a load of preconceived notions and institutional restrictions. Even if the future established that not all all hypothesis and explanations are correct, the principles and vision would be a ratchet that would not allow a slide backwards. This is a new page in Turkology, this is a new page in the Indo-European Urheimat business.

Anatole A. Klyosov

The principal mystery in the relationship of Indo-European and Türkic linguistic families, and
an attempt to solve it with the help of DNA genealogy: reflections of a non-linguist

Journal of Russian Academy of DNA Genealogy (ISSN 1942-7484), 2010, Vol. 3, No 1, pp. 3 - 58

Excerpts:
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The modern Uigurs, Kazakhs, Bashkirs, and some other peoples of Siberia, Central Asia and the Urals descend in part from the ancient R1b1 branch, and by now retain the same haplogroup for 16,000 years. The “Türkic-lingual” haplogroup R1b expanded from the South Siberia, where it formed 16,000 years ago, across the territories of the Middle Volga, Samara, Khvalynsk (in the middle course of river Volga) and the Ancient Pit Grave (“Kurgan”) archaeological cultures and historical-cultural complexes (8-6 thousand years ago and later, the common ancestor of the ethnic Russians with haplogroup R1b1 lived 6,775 ± 830 years ago), northern Kazakhstan (for example Botai culture dated by the archaeologists 5,700 - 5,100 years before present (BP), in reality much older), passed through the Caucasus to Anatolia (6,000 ± 800 BP by the dating of R1b1b2 haplogroup of the modern Caucasians), and through the Middle East (Lebanon, 5,300 ± 700 BP; the ancient ancestors of the modern Jews, 5,150 ± 620 BP), and Northern Africa (Berbers of the R1b haplogroup, 3,875 ± 670 BP), crossed over to the Iberian Peninsula (around 4,800-4,500 BP, present day Basques 3625 ± 370 BP) and further on to the British Isles (in the Ireland 3,800 ± 380 and 3,350 ± 360 BP for different populations), and to the continental Europe (Flanders, 4,150 ± 500 BP, Sweden 4,225 ± 520 BP).

The path from the Pyrenees to the Continental Europe is the path and period of the Beaker Culture, the ancestors of the Pra-Celts and Pra-Italics.

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In parallel, the traces of the ancient R1b carriers are found in the Balkans (4,050 ± 890 BP), separately in Slovenia (4,050 ± 540 BP), and Italy (4,125 ± 500 BP). That was the beginning of the Türkic languages' time in Europe, and the disappearance there of the Europe “Proto-Indo-European” haplogroup R1a1, which populated Europe from the 10th millennium BC.

The haplogroup R1a1 was practically saved by the fact that 4,800 years ago, in the beginning of the third millennium BC, its bearers moved from Europe to the Eastern European Plains, and settled the territory from the Baltic to the Black Sea, 4,500 BP they were already in the Caucasus, 3,600 BP they were in Anatolia (according to the haplotypes of the R1a1 haplogroup in modern Anatolia). Meanwhile, across the Eastern European Plain they migrated to the southern Ural, and around 4,000 BP on to the southern Siberia, at that time they founded the Andronovo archaeological culture, colonized Central Asia (4,000 - 3,500 BP), and approximately 3,500 BP a part of them went to India and Iran as Aryans, bringing along the Aryan dialects, which effectively closed the linguistic link with the Aryan languages (R1a1) and led to the emergence of the Indo-European family of languages.

4,500-4,000 years ago the R1a1 disappeared from the Western and Central Europe, Europe became Türkic-speaking with the arrival of the people carrying R1b haplogroup (the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC), and that lasted until the middle of the 1st millennium BC (3,000-2,500 years BP), when the haplogroup R1a1 re-populated the Western and Central Europe, and came about a reverse replacement of the Türkic languages to the Indo-European languages. The striations of the linguistic and haplogroup, or tribal (in terms of DNA genealogy) in the Eastern European Plain, in the Near East, and in Europe has led to erroneous linguistic and archaeological concepts such as the “Indo-European Kurgan Culture”, with its transposed languages (postulated” Indo-European”, when it was a Türkic language), the wrong direction of movement (the “Proto-Indo-European” was moving eastward, not westward, the Türkic was moving westward, the westward movement was seen by the creators and supporters of the “Kurgan Culture” as the “Indo-European movement, which was 180 degrees wrong), wrong periods (the Proto-Indo-European language advanced eastward across the Eastern European Plain in the 3rd millennium BC, while the ancient Pit Grave, or the “Kurgan” culture is mainly dated by the period of the 4th-3rd millenniums BC, and were moving westward).

Something similar also happened to the “Anatolian theory”, where a separate (So.Caucasian) branch of the Aryans' route, the southward movement of the R1a1 haplogroup carriers across the Eastern European Plain was mistaken for the “Indo-European homeland” in Anatolia. That led to a conceptual distortion and misunderstanding of the fundamental role of the Türkic languages in the Eastern European Plain (at least from the time 10,000 years ago), and in Europe, where it continued for two and a half thousand years (from the beginning of the 3rd millennium to the middle of the 1st millennium BC).

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IMPORTANT PREFACE NOTE

What the article calls “Türkic” or “ancient Türkic” language is based only on the fact that Turkologists call it Türkic. Analyzing the ancient texts (see below) they see specifically the agglutinative Türkic language, the Türkic ethnonyms in Europe. It is possible that this is a misunderstanding, and what they see is an agglutinative language of the haplogroup R1b ancient carriers, which can be called “Erbin” (after R1b). It could be, but not necessarily, a basis, a ground, a substrate for the modern Türkic languages; it could just be a related, lateral branch of the ancient Türkic language. It could be the agglutinative language of the ancient Basques. Was that Türkic language or not is a matter for the linguists to decide. In any case, it does not affect the discourse and conclusions of the article . Those who find the term “Türkic language” in this context (as a pre-IE language in Europe, employing by R1b bearers 4,500-2,500 years before present, and some later) not acceptable may substitute it with the term “Erbin”, and read on.

INTRODUCTION

For more than a hundred years the “Iranists, or more commonly” Indo-Europeanists” on one side, and Turkologists on the other side, completely deny the contribution of the opponent's linguistic group into the Eurasian linguistic landscape in antiquity (from the beginning of our era and older), asserting that in the Europe and Asia was either a continuous “Indo-Iranian” substrate, or conversely continuous Türkic substrate. They do not compromise. Examples are given below.

And the explanation is quite simple. Both sides are right, but on their own half. The two major Eurasian haplogroups, R1a and R1b, diverged (or rather, formed and diverged) 20-16 thousand years ago, evolved linguistically from the common Nostratic languages, respectively into the Pra-Aryan (later called “Proto-Indo-European”) and the Proto-Türkic, and then into Türkic. And because the paths of the haplogroups R1a and R1b carriers in Eurasia significantly transversed in the same territories, often with a gap of a millennia or two (R1a migrations are older in Europe, R1b migrations are older in Asia), they left “substrates” superimposed one on another, and intertwined in many ways. Since the agglutinative Türkic languages are probably less subjected to temporal changes than the flexive Indo-European languages, the Turkologists explain with ease almost all “Iranisms” from the Türkic languages. They are finding in works of the Classical writers many examples of Türkisms, in the proper names and in the names for the objects, and in separate terms. The Iranists in response brush them aside, and cite their own versions, in accordance with which certainly no Türkisms existed in the Eurasia during the past era and even more so before that. Or they ignore it, or undertake repressive measures in science. Any Turkologist can cite many examples of that kind.

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This article introduces the problem, to show that many thousands years ago have existed both the Aryan, that is Proto-Indo-European languages, and the Proto-Türkic (or Türkic) languages. They simply were carried by different tribes, the first by the tribe R1a1, the second by R1b1, and perhaps by the kindred tribes Q and N. This concept, naturally, awaits deeper linguistic studies. But the beginning, as can be seen, is established.

The next section relays the story about of opposition between “Iranists” and “Türkists”. Actually, the opposition does not exists literally, it is rather a figure of speech. Too unequal were both sides to call it an “opposition”. But this figure of speech reflects the essence of the problem. Ever since the beginning of the 1950s, the official historical science postulated that the Scythians were “Iranian speaking”. The issue was not to be discussed any more. Any arguments and scientific evidence on the subject were not acknowledged by the official science (and that the official science exists is beyond discussions), or reacted to with dead silence for at least 60 years.

About confrontation between “Iranists” and “Türkists”. Solely quotes.

About confrontation between “Iranists” and “Türkists”. Solely quotes.

Yu.N. Drozdov “Türkic ethnonymy of ancient European peoples” (2008):

“... presents the results of ethnonymic studies of the ancient Europeans tribes and peoples according to the ancient and early medieval written sources. It was established that the ethnonymy of these tribes and peoples was Türkic-lingual” (annotation for the book).



Ibid: “The results give reasons to believe that a vast majority of the European population from the ancient times to the 10-12 centuries was Türkic-lingual”.

Ibid, p. 5: “The Classical and Early Medieval written sources in Greek, Latin and Arabic cite a large number of names for the ancient European tribes and peoples. Among them was not encountered a single name that could be derived from the Greek, Latin, or any other modern European language ... The linguistic analysis of the ancient European ethnonyms shows that all of them are distorted Türkic-lingual words”.

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Ibid, p. 5-6: “As showed the results of studies, neither the Hebrew, nor the Greek language had any relation to the (Christian) terminology (two millennia ago). It also was entirely Türkic-lingual”.

Ibid, p. 8-9: “In accordance with the concept of the modern historical science, all of these (Scythian) tribes are considered to be Iranian speaking (more accurately, Persian speaking). Moreover, this view has acquired a status of a static axiom ... (To the contrary) a number of scientists and experts provably state for already quite a long time that all Scythian and Sarmatian peoples were Türkic-lingual”.

V.I. Abayev “Ossetian Language and Folklore” (Moscow-Leningrad, 1949, pp. 239): “... We have received a certain amount of positive, solid and indisputable results which can not be moved by any future explorations and discoveries. These results characterize the Scythian language as an Iranian language, with features of peculiar and well-defined individuality”.

Yu.N. Drozdov, p. 9: “... The modern historical science adopted this conclusion of V.I. Abaev as axiom, resulting that the ethnogenesis of all European nations does not find an intelligible and logical explanation.”

M.Z. Zakiev “Genesis of Türks and Tartars” (Moscow, 2003, pp. 139-140): “The theory of exclusive Iranian linguality of all tribes united by the common name of the Scythians seemed plausible when the Iranists conducted etymological studies of the Scythian written monuments only selecting the word ( ethnonyms) with solely Iranian roots. However, the research circle of these monuments was extending. The problem was also approached by non-Iranists, in particular Turkologists and other linguists. In the scientific circulation were introduced words with non-Iranian roots, especially with the Türkic roots, indicating the presence in the union of the Scythian tribes Türkic-lingual tribes ... The result is a vicious circle: archaeologists are guided by the opinion of linguists, the archaeological culture of the Scythian and Sarmatian period is attributed to the Iranian-speaking tribes, and the linguists-Iranists for confirmation of their theory refer to the findings of the archaeologists”.

M.Z. Zakiev, ibid: “Notably, all the Turkologists that reached the Scythian materials and studied them themselves, unequivocally recognize the Türkic-linguality of the main composition of the Scythians and Sarmatians, and prove that with linguistic, ethnological, mythological, and archaeological evidence”.

I.M. Miziev “History around us” (Nalchik, 1990, cit. per T.A. Mollaev “A new perspective to the history of the Ossetian people,” 2010, p. 6):



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Theories of “Indo-European Urheimat” in light of the DNA-Genealogy

Amazingly, all four main hypotheses localizing the “Indo-European homeland”, namely “Circumpontic localization”, “Kurgan”, “Anatolian”, and “Neolithic gap” turned out to be wrong at their core. They could not explain the direction of “Indo-Europeans”, including the path towards the India; they could not explain the timing of their movement and what preceded that movement; they were unable to point the location of the “pra-homeland” and where from the “Pra-Indo-Europeans” appeared there, especially since (the fallacious) notion of “primordial homeland” does not contain the previous localization, which is fundamentally wrong; they could not explain the prolonged contact of the “Proto-Indo-Europeans” with other language families (Kartvelian, North Caucasus, Semitic, Pra-Türkic), which clearly occurred in the 3rd and 2nd millenniums, when the carriers of the haplogroup R1a1 reached the Caucasus about 4,500 years ago, reached the Near East around 3,800-3,600 years ago, and reached the territories of the ancient Pit Grave Culture, Andronovo Culture, and Central Asia, with their probable Türkic-lingual population (haplogroup R1b1) approximately 4,000-3,600 years ago.

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The Celts were carrying Türkic languages across the Europe.

In conclusion, a brief pause on the Scythian issue. From the above, it is clear that the Scythian people - in fact, a collective term, were both Türkic-lingual, and “Iranian-lingual”, or more accurately, Aryan-lingual. They were both nomadic pastoralists (which is typical for the Türkic tribes), and farmers (which is often typical for the Aryans).
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The sooner both sides, the “Iranists” and “Türkists” recognize these facts, or at this point only considerations, the sooner linguistics would be enriched by new findings and discoveries. Especially, if in addition they would adopt in their research arsenal the DNA genealogy. I dare to hope that this article would facilitate that.

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Detailed article: http://s155239215.onlinehome.us/turk...enealogyEn.htm

For more details regarding the Aryan base haplotypes:

Anatole Klyosov's genetic research has shown that the R1a basehaplotype 13 25 15 10 12 12 10 13 11 31 -- 15 14 20 12 16 11 23 (with a common ancestor of 3400+/-505 ybp, the likely times for the Aryans coming to India) is reasonably close to the Bashkir Turkic and Kyrgyz Turkic base haplotypes (both R1a-L342.2). A common ancestor of all the reported Indian (Tamil) haplotypes and Bashkir and Kyrgyz haplotypes lived around 5000 ybp, which fits the timespan to R1a-L342.2 common ancestor.

Source: GENEALOGY-DNA-L Archives - http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.co...-12/1356088114