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Thread: Traditional Romanian architecture

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    Default Traditional Romanian architecture

    The rustic architecture, which is the most complete, the most expressive creation of the old rural societies, reveals the way of living, the technical, social and spiritual acts of these societies. Building itself as a sign of human presence in nature, as an expression of mans inner universe, the architecture shows the individuality of the community, revealing simultaneously its social command, the technical and material possibilities and last, but not least, its degree of artistic sensitivity.




    1. Bogdan Vodă (Maramureș) 2. Moișeni (Satu Mare) 3. Alejd (Bihor) 4. Sălciua (Alba) 5. Chereluș (Arad) 6. Cmpu lui Neag (Hunedoara) 7. Bran (Brașov) 8. Curtișoara (Gorj) 9. Măldărești (Vlcea) 10. Plopi (Mehedinți) 11. Cuciulata (Brașov) 12. Rădești (Alba) 13. Șanț (Bistrița-Năsăud) 14. Viștea (Brașov) 15. Moșoaia (Argeș) 16. Stănești (Argeș) 17. Trăisteni (Prahova) 18. Cobia de Sus (Dmbovița) 19. Periș (Ilfov) 20. Dragalina (Ialomița) 21. Rușețu (Buzău) 22. Chiojdu (Buzău) 23. Curteni (Vaslui) 24. Năruja (Vrancea) 25. Piatra Șoimului (Neamț) 26. Hangu (Neamț) 27. Voitinel (Suceava) 28. Oltina (Constanța)

    [SPOILER=Details]
    1. Bogdan Vodă (Maramureș)


    2. Moișeni (Satu Mare)


    3. Alejd (Bihor)




    4. Sălciua (Alba)


    5. Chereluș (Arad)


    6. Cmpu lui Neag (Hunedoara)


    7. Bran (Brașov)


    8. Curtișoara (Gorj)


    9. Măldărești (Vlcea)


    10. Plopi (Mehedinți)


    11. Cuciulata (Brașov)


    12. Rădești (Alba)


    13. Șanț (Bistrița-Năsăud)


    14. Viștea (Brașov)


    15. Moșoaia (Argeș)


    16. Stănești (Argeș)


    17. Trăisteni (Prahova)


    18. Cobia de Sus (Dmbovița)


    19. Periș (Ilfov)


    20. Dragalina (Ialomița)


    21. Rușețu (Buzău)


    22. Chiojdu (Buzău)


    23. Curteni (Vaslui)


    24. Năruja (Vrancea)


    25. Piatra Șoimului (Neamț)


    26. Hangu (Neamț)


    27. Voitinel (Suceava)


    28. Oltina (Constanța)[/SPOILER]

    Presenting significant clues to outline the frame of the daily life and the way of providing a lasting and permanent shelter (characteristic for the sedentary populations), the rustic homes are looked upon as a research material, particularly interesting and useful for archaeologists, historians, ethnographers and architects.

    The essential characteristics of the Romanian rustic architecture are the functionality, the adequacy of the purpose and of the accomplishing means, the measure and the harmony in settling the dcor and the proportions, the expressivity, the integration in the scenery. All of these give unity to the whole thing, personalizing at the same time the achievements of our rustic architecture. We mention below several aspects of general order that can be seen in all the regions of the country (with some exceptions, of course, exceptions determined by the local social-economical conditions).


    Section of a rustic traditional house from Maramureș

    The first thing that is pointed out is the isolated position of the house, its position towards the other annexed buildings from the house-hold, the ordering in the scheme of the living rooms which are grouped along an axe that shows the orientation direction of the windows and the accesses of the house (East, South, South-East).

    The accomplishing uniformity of the homes may be found in the structure uniformity of the dwelling organization, in forms specific to any kind of plan. The privacy and the warmth of the inner rooms (particularities that are defining for the environment of the rustic houses all over the country) can be achieved through a various and rich inventory of textiles, furniture and ceramics, paintings on wood and glass, rustic costumes, items for home usage. The reduced height of the rooms and the ceilings with visible girders are also specific to Romanian rustic houses.


    A traditional farmyard - Maramureș. On the right is the barn built of logs and still with a shingle roof. On the left is the small wood shed and beside it a secondary dwelling.

    The rooms, so well balanced and harmonious, arent isolated at all from the outside, on the contrary, because of the verandah they are always opened to it. Original architecture element and specific to Romanian rustic architecture, the verandah (prispa) is low or high, situated on one side of the house or on _ of house, with or without a balcony, it dominates and determines the position of the facades, assuring the fluency of the inside and outside spaces (of the house).


    A traditional farmyard - Bucovina. Around the yard are placed the summer kitchen, the barn and stable, and the main house.

    Using natural resources-their joining and structure way together with the pure geometric forms of the volume of the walls and roofs, the subtle dosage of the shadow and the light, the harmonic chromatics- all these characteristics are elements in tight relationship with the nature. The houses, the house-holds, situated at a certain distance from the road, represent interference points of the natural places with those created by man; they are elements that determined the peasant to make a change in the nature through his creative intervention.


    The main room of a traditional house from Bucovina


    The main room of a traditional house from Maramureș

    Source
    Last edited by Daos; 02-24-2010 at 06:34 PM. Reason: Added the spoiler...

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    Default Organization of the houses from Maramureș

    The plan of the house was simple: the older ones had two or three rooms: "tinda", "cămara" (a store room) and "casa", evolving toward the end of the 18th century to the house with several rooms which was very judiciously partitioned.

    The walls of the buildings were made of wide thick beams, the oak beams being axe-carved from the wood core and hatchet-finished, while the fir of spruce fir around beams were joined in a Romanian joint ("cheutoare romnească") and/or later (in the 19th century) in a German "blockbau" system ("cheutoare nemțească"). The gables joined over the walls supported the roof which was always four-sloped, made of roof boarding covered with shingle or, in some cases, with straw.

    If the very old houses (from the 16th-the 17th centuries) had no pillar porch, in the 18th century it became generally used and known as "șatră". It was made of a succession of carved and decorated pillars, tied at the upper side with counter braces ("chituși"), making up wonderful archways, specific to the region. At the beginning, the porch was built only on the front side of the house. In the 18th century it was also built on the right side and later it was extended on all three sides of the house.

    The Inside of the House

    The indoor architecture was adapted to the home needs, and also to the aesthetic requirements.Site surveys and archives investigations disclosed the house inside of the 17th and 18th centuries, which was of great importance to the present research stage.



    The living room, which in the local language was called "casă" (house), enveloped the domestic universe, corresponding to the aesthetic and pragmatic taste of the woman. The feminine touch was present everywhere, both as concerns the house arrangement, the partition and the designation of some places and objects used in everyday life, and as concerns the practice of various rituals.

    The element determining the indoor organization, both at material and ritualistic level, was the main beam ("meștergrinda"). It ran along the house rooms and tied the opposite walls, and by means of the small beams which were equidistantly placed over it, it also tied the side walls and, of course, supported the whole roof structure.

    The main beam divided the house into two: on the right, the space for living ("faptele de viață") - where the hearth, the oven and the bed were placed; here, under normal conditions, marriage was consummated, life was conceived, people were born and died; on the left, the space for rituals ("faptele de ritual")- where the ceremonies of christening and wedding were performed, the dead body was placed in the coffin on the table and the dead watch and the funeral service were carried out.

    The ritual space walls were decorated with friezes consisting of holy icons alternating with beautiful pottery adorned with towels. On the corner, there was the table which had on both sides, along the walls, benches and/or cases arranged at a right angle. Over the bed, on the wall, there was the shelf ("ruda") on which counterpanes, carpets and towels, tablecloths and pillow cases were stored, the layers these objects were laid in having three functions: an aesthetic one (to adorn the inside), a storing one and of displaying the girl's dowry, all in a perfect syncretism. The dish cabinet was behind the door and on the opposite wall there the were the spoon-shelf and the pottery-shelf.

    Behind the icons and above the main beam there were boxes with documents and papers, the razor, the Epiphany's cross, sweet basil the child's dried navel kept for the ritual of untying it within the trial of initiation. At the head of the bed, on a bench, the hope chest was placed.

    The harmony of the inside was emphasized by the colour of the textile materials and of the objects decorating it.




    House Annexes

    The traditional house was conceived so that functional quality should prevail. Opposite the house, which was facing the sunrise or the east, there were the stable and the barn, the pig stays (all in the cattle pen); on one side there was the shed for the cart, wood and agricultural tools; the shadoof or wheel well was usually placed in the garden. The corn sheds and, of course, the sheds for the technical devices necessary in the house, such as: the hammer or screw oil presses ("uleinițe cu berbeci sau cu șurub"), the hand-operated grinding mill (from the plain ones to those fitted witch mechanical systems), the wood lathe, the thresher (in some cases), they all were basic components of the agricultural and shepherd life. In the garden, at the back of the house, there were the corn stacks, haystacks, corn cobs, the stacks ("pari") for lucerne or clover drying, the hay bushel ("oborocul") and also the pits for beet, potatoes and apples. At the back of the garden, isolated, there was the privy.



    The house with double yard specific to the agricultural and shepherd life was also typical of this region.



    Gates were considered to have a cultural role, providing the regional identity, which was incontestably that of Maramureș. Some time ago the gate was the social mark of its owner. It separated the holy space of the house from the outside space, the peasants from Maramureș being proud of it. If present-day gates are over-adorned with various decoration motifs and sometimes even over-sized, the gates restored and preserved in the museum are of the classical type, having the ideal sizes, and the suitable decoration.



    Losing their initial significance, the motifs carved were transferred from the magical and mythical level to the artistic, aesthetic level. On the gate-pillars the tree of life ("pomul vieții") prevailed as a symbol of life without death, solar and star emblems, Christian marks, but also the cock and the snake or anthropomorphic figures, all being the expression of deep encoded beliefs lost in immemorial times. The name of the owner and the date of gate building was frequently written on the upper threshold of the gate. And sometimes even the name of the artisan was engraved in a hidden place.

    Source

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    Default Village Museum in Baia Mare




















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    Default

    Here's an interesting project: a virtual museum from Banat area.

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    Default The Ethnographical Museum of Transylvania

    You can find a few examples of Transylvanian farmsteads here...

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    Default Muzeul Tehnicii Populare from Sibiu
















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    Default A vanishing hamlet...

    These pictures are closer to the reality than the ones I've previously posted...


    Before entering into the ground, small buildings with straw roofs are overrun by lichens...


    ...or swallowed by forests.


    The story of Cheia hamlet is identical to other localities that have vanished. Their death is only the effect of isolation...


    Because the same mountains that once protected these houses, have led them to oblivion in the depression between the four canyons (Rimetului, Geoagelului, Pravului and Bălții)...


    ...they suffocate them today with the loneliness arising from the lack of access roads!


    Sheltered under the canyons' slopes...


    ...or scattered on the peaks around...


    ...the once inhabited farmsteads of the the hamlet...


    ...seem to collapse on themselves now!


    Soon we will be left only with the memory of a village!


    Although some houses seem to hide in the young forests...


    ...their end is still near!


    P.S.: I apologize for my appalling translation...

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    Default

    They look similar to Norse buildings:


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    I wouldn't go that far. Our churches are much simpler and smaller.


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    Quote Originally Posted by Daos View Post
    I wouldn't go that far. Our churches are much simpler and smaller.


    Come on, there are obvious connections, you know it too.

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