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Thread: Czech Silesia

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    Default Czech Silesia

    Historical Background and Evolution

    The most of Silesia is today located in Poland, only a smaller part is situated in the Czech Republic.
    Its history is interesting and complicated. Silesia was always a crossroad of the Polish, Czech and German influences,
    as well as witness of the struggles and coexistence of the catholics and protestants. Silesia was consisted from two parts,
    Lower Silesia with capital Wrocław (Vratislav in Czech, Breslau in German) and Upper Silesia with capital Opole (Oppeln).
    Silesia.
    Lower Silesia"]Lower Silesia[/URL] was consisted from 13 principiates: Wroclaw, Brzeg, Glogow (Glogau), Olesnica (Oels), Jawor (Jauern), Legnica (Liegnitz), Ziebice (Munsterberg) ,
    Nysa (Neisse), Wolow (Wohlau), Zahań (Sagan), Swidnica (Schweidnitz), Zmigrod (Trachenberg) and Bytom.
    Upper Silesia"]Upper Silesia[/URL] was consisted from 13 principiates: Cieszyn, Opava (Troppau), Krnov (Jägerndorf), Opole (Oppeln), Raciborz, Bielsko, and next 3 principiates.
    In the 10th century belonged Silesia to the Kingdom of Poland, in 1335-1742 was the Duchy of Silesia part of the Czech state,
    as well as Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia.
    Results of the Thirty Years War led to large emigration of Czech protestants from Bohemia and Moravia.
    Although Silesia was also part of the same Empire under Habsburg rule, the situation was diferent there.
    In 1705 was signed pact called Peace of Altranstädt between Karl XII. King of Sweden, August II.
    King of Poland
    and Emperor Joseph I. Habsburg. Results of this pact brought more tolerance to the protestants in Silesia.
    128 churches in 5 Silesian principiates came back to protestants. It was also allowed to built 6 new churches: in Cieszyn (Těšín in Czech, Teschen in German),
    Zagań, Možuchow, Jelenia Gora, Kamiena Gora and Milicz (Sagan, Freistadt, Hirschberg, Landeshutt and Militsch in German).
    All the 6 new churches, as well as the mentioned 128 old churches are located in Poland today.
    In the rest of the Silesia was allowed only a private worships for one household. Lutheran church at Těšín (Cieszyn) played important rule also for protestants
    from Moravia who secretly visited the church. Large part of religious literature was smugled from Silesia to protestants of Moravia and Bohemia.

    Big geopolithical changes for Silesia brought the 1740s. Habsburg Empire, ruled by the Empress Maria Theresia had to defend against invasions from Prussia
    under rule of Friedrich II.
    First of the 3 so called Silesan wars (1740-1742) was won by the Friedrich II.
    Most part of the Silesia was annected by the Prussia. Next 2 wars continued (1744-1745) and (1756-1763) but the results of the first Silesian war was not changed.
    In the map of the Europe appeared Prussian Silesia and Austrian Silesia.
    Austrian Silesia consisted only from 3 principiates: Cieszyn (Těšín, Teschen), Opava (Troppau) and Krnov (Jägerndorf).
    To the rest of Silesian principiates annected Prussia.
    Prussia annected also Bohemian Kladsko county (Glatz in German, today Klodzko in Poland).
    In the outbreak of the 20th century lived in Prussian Silesia 4 668 857 inhabitants.
    2 569 688 were catholics and 2 042 538 were protestans.
    By the ethnicity lived there 3 483 042 Germans, 1 100 831 Poles and 75 913 Czechs.

    At Austrian Silesia lived in the same time 680 422 inhabitants. Percentually lived there 85 per cent catholics and 13.5 percent protestants.
    Ethnical structure was the following: 45 % Germans, 32% Poles and 22% Czechs.
    Industrialization in Ostrava region (coal mines, steel works) attracted a large number of workers also from the outside of Silesia.
    For work in coal mines and steel works moved there Poles from Galicia and Czechs from Moravia.

    Another big geopolithical changes brought 2 World Wars in the 20th century.
    In 1918, after WWI and collapse of Austro-Hungarian Empire, were established new countries in the central Europe, includes Czechoslovakia and Poland.
    Austrian Silesia was divided between Czechoslovakia and Poland afer a short border conflict.

    Industrialized region of Těšín (Cieszyn) was a subject of the 6 days war between Czechoslovakia and Poland in January 1919.
    Results was following: southern part of the region came to the property of Czechoslovakia, the northern one to Poland.
    Historical town of Cieszyn came to the property of Poland, its suburb includes railway station came to Czechoslovakia as Český Těšín.
    Most of Prussian Silesia stayed in property of Germany, only smaller eastern parts came to the property of Poland (Raciborz region)
    and to the property of Czechoslovakia (Hlučín region).
    During WW2 was Silesia, as well as the most of the Europe under control of Nazi Germany.
    After WW2 Poland gained rest of the Prussian Silesia.
    German population of the Silesia (in Poland as well as in Czechoslovakia) were moved to Germany.

    Industrialization of Ostrava region continued also after WW2. To this region came new waves of population from the all regions of Czechoslovakia.

    Austrian Silesia (until 1920s)


    Czech Silesia (since 1920s)
    Last edited by Mikula; 03-07-2017 at 06:58 AM.

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    I can recommend some books, they are about Silesia as a whole but Czech aspects are also described:

    History of Silesia in English:

    Vol. 1., c. 1000-1526 - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_1.pdf

    Vol. 2., 1526-1740 - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_2.pdf

    Vol. 3., 1740-1918 - I couldn't find this volume online.

    Vol. 4., 1918-1945 - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_4.pdf

    Vol. 5., 1945-2015 - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_5.pdf

    Some books in German:

    Joseph Partsch. 1896. Schlesien Vol. 1 - http://www.sbc.org.pl/dlibra/docmeta...&dirds=1&tab=1

    Joseph Partsch. 1911. Schlesien Vol. 2 - http://www.sbc.org.pl/dlibra/docmeta...&dirds=1&tab=1

    Paul Weber. 1913. Die Polen in Oberschlesien: eine statistische Untersuchung - https://archive.org/details/diepoleninobersc00webeuoft

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    More Facts
    Czech Silesia is situated in northern part of Moravskoslezský kraj (Moravian-Silesian Region), and partly of Olomoucký Kraj (Olomouc Region), today.
    It is important to mention industrial town of Ostrava with suroundings, historical towns Opava,
    Frýdek-Místek and the natural beauty of Beskydy Mts and Jeseníky Mts.

    Ostrava – today the 3rd biggest city in the Czech republic was a small town prior the coal-mining there.
    Firstly is mentioned in 1267, coal-mining started there in 1787.
    Town is situated on the both banks of Ostravice river – ancient borderline between Moravia and Silesia.
    Thanks to coal mining, steel works and heavy industry increased the population of Ostrava. Today lives in Ostrava more than 320 000 inhabitants.
    Coal mining and industrialization in the previous 2 centuries led to the simillar evolution of the neighbour towns
    Karviná, Třinec and Havířov.
    Ostrava is today not only industrial town but also university town, cultural center and capital of Moravian-Silesian Region.


    Opava – mentioned since 12th century, since 1224 as a town. Although Opava suffered by the wars,
    the town kept a lot of its old architecture – cloister, churches, palaces, theaters and museums.
    For genealogy is important Zemsky Archive there, where are hold old vital registers from the area of Czech Silesia and northern Moravia.
    One of the famous personalities who was born at Opava is also Joy Adamson (born as Viktorie Gessner), author of several books about African nature.
    Well known is her book Born Free about the lioness Elsa.

    In Opava, the old political and cultural center of Austrian Silesia,
    live today more than 62 500 inhabitants. Opava is also known for machinery and especially the grocery today.

    Frýdek-Místek – Town and castle Frýdek is mentioned on the right bank of Ostravice river since 14th century.
    Silesian town Frýdek and Moravian town of Místek were unified in one town since 1 January 1943.
    Ostravice river was traditional borderline between the 2 towns as well as between Moravia and Silesia.
    Population of the twin-towns is today more than 66 000.
    The town is located beneath the hills called Moravskoslezské Beskydy.
    Though the area is known for its natural beauty, it traditionally has been difficult to earn a living from the rocky mountain soil.
    This hard social situation of people living there, made them to think about emigration to the USA.
    Another solution was to find job in coal mines or steel works in the industrial aglomeration of Ostrava.

    The mentioned hills was in the 18th century also home of the bandits.
    The most known is legendary bandit Ondráš (1680-1715) who came from village Janovice located not far from Frýdek.
    In Beskydy hills kept a lot of ancient wooden buildings, treasures of the folk architecture:
    wooden churches at Guty (built 1563) at Prašivá (1643), Bystřice (1595) Nýdek (1576) wooden houses at Komorní Lhotka, Řeka, Jablunkov etc.

    It is necessery to mention also the western part of Czech Silesia.
    It was a German-speaking area until 1946.
    This part is known for its marvellous Jeseníky Mts., with highest peak Praděd (Altvater).
    The area was also known for mining for silver and golden ores.
    You can try goldwashing at Open Air Museum near Zlaté Hory.


    Czech Silesia has a plenty of famous natives.
    If I can chose only one, as an apritician I had to name Johann Gregor Mendel - founder of the genetics.

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    gutes Marschlied?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Peterski View Post
    I can recommend some books, they are about Silesia as a whole but Czech aspects are also described:

    History of Silesia in English:

    Vol. 1., c. 1000-1526 - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_1.pdf

    Vol. 2., 1526-1740 - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_2.pdf

    Vol. 3., 1740-1918 - I couldn't find this volume online.

    Vol. 4., 1918-1945 - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_4.pdf

    Vol. 5., 1945-2015 - http://www.bibliotekacyfrowa.pl/Cont...egio_vol_5.pdf

    Some books in German:

    Joseph Partsch. 1896. Schlesien Vol. 1 - http://www.sbc.org.pl/dlibra/docmeta...&dirds=1&tab=1

    Joseph Partsch. 1911. Schlesien Vol. 2 - http://www.sbc.org.pl/dlibra/docmeta...&dirds=1&tab=1

    Paul Weber. 1913. Die Polen in Oberschlesien: eine statistische Untersuchung - https://archive.org/details/diepoleninobersc00webeuoft
    Thank you for the book recommendations. Do you have any books or information about Austrian Silesia? Or about Breslau/Wrocław?

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_Silesia
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    Please classify me pictures-with shorter facial and scalp hair: https://www.theapricity.com/forum/sh...se-classify-me

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    Skip to page 258 for "Sprachliches Ortsrepertorium des Teschener Schlesien":



    https://epub.uni-regensburg.de/37746...omik_final.pdf

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