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Thread: Ancient genomes of Srubnaya, Cimmerians, Scythians and Sarmatians(Science, 2018)

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    Default Ancient genomes of Srubnaya, Cimmerians, Scythians and Sarmatians(Science, 2018)

    http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/10/eaat4457

    Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads

    Maja Krzewińska1,*,†, Glşah Merve Kılın1,*,†, Anna Juras2, Dilek Koptekin3, Maciej Chyleński4, Alexey G. Nikitin5, Nikolai Shcherbakov6, Iia Shuteleva6,7, Tatiana Leonova6, Liudmila Kraeva8, Flarit A. Sungatov9, Alfija N. Sultanova9, Inna Potekhina10, Sylwia Łukasik2, Marta Krenz-Niedbała2, Love Daln11, Vitaly Sinika12,13, Mattias Jakobsson14,15,16, Jan Stor17 and Anders Gtherstrm1,†

    Science Advances 03 Oct 2018:
    Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat4457
    DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4457

    Abstract

    For millennia, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was a connector between the Eurasian steppe and Europe. In this scene, multidirectional and sequential movements of different populations may have occurred, including those of the Eurasian steppe nomads. We sequenced 35 genomes (low to medium coverage) of Bronze Age individuals (Srubnaya-Alakulskaya) and Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) that represent four distinct cultural entities corresponding to the chronological sequence of cultural complexes in the region. Our results suggest that, despite genetic links among these peoples, no group can be considered a direct ancestor of the subsequent group. The nomadic populations were heterogeneous and carried genetic affinities with populations from several other regions including the Far East and the southern Urals. We found evidence of a stable shared genetic signature, making the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe a likely source of western nomadic groups.

    Code:
    Table S3. Summary sequencing statistics for mitochondrial variants for individuals sequenced in this study. 						
    						
    Individual	Site	Culture	Age (cal BC) 95%	Biological Sex	MtDNA Haplogroup	Y Haplogroup
    chy001	Cherniy Yar	Late Sarmatian	55 - 140 CE	XX	H2a1	-
    chy002	Cherniy Yar	Late Sarmatian	65 - 220 CE	XY	T1a1	R1a1a
    tem001	Temyaysovo	Late Sarmatian	135 - 320 CE	XX	U5b2b	-
    tem002	Temyaysovo	Late Sarmatian	125 - 240 CE	XY	D4q	R1b1a1a2
    tem003	Temyaysovo	Late Sarmatian	130-320 CE	XY	U5b2b	R1b1a1a2?
    scy006*	Starosillya	Scythian	ND	XX	D4j2	-
    scy009*	Starosillya	Scythian	770 - 415 BCE	XY	J2b1a6	R1b1a1a2
    scy010*	Starosillya	Scythian	790 - 540 BCE	XX	N1b1a	-
    scy011*	Nesterivka	Scythian	355 - 115 BCE	XX	A	-
    scy192*	Glinoe	Scythian	2863 - 2503 BCE	XX	H8c	-
    scy193*	Glinoe	Scythian	ND	XY	U5a2a1	R1b1a1a2?
    scy197*	Glinoe	Scythian	2885 - 2632 BCE	XY	U5a1a1	R1b1a1a2
    scy300*	Glinoe	Scythian	397 - 209 BCE	XX	H5b	-
    scy301	Glinoe	Scythian	392 - 204 BCE	XY	U5b2a3	R1b1a1a2
    scy303*	Glinoe	Scythian	380 - 203 BCE	XX	U5a1a2b	-
    scy304	Glinoe	Scythian	361 - 172 BCE	XY	U4*	R1b1a1a2
    scy305*	Glinoe	Scythian	399 - 209 BCE	XY	U5a2b	R1b1a1a2
    scy311*	Glinoe	Scythian	389 - 204 BCE	XX	T2b	-
    scy332*	Glinoe	Scythian	248 - 391 CE	XX	M10a1a1a	-
    cim357	Glinoe Sad	Cimmerian	914 - 805 BCE	XY	H9a	R1b1a
    cim358	Glinoe Sad	Cimmerian	936 -809 BCE	XY	C5c (50%)	Q1a1
    cim359	Mokra	Cimmerian	1008 - 838 BCE	XX	R	-
    kzb001	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1735 - 1565 BCE	XX	U4b1a1a1	-
    kzb002	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1875 - 1665 BCE	XY	J1c3a	R1a1a1
    kzb003	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1765 - 1630 BCE	XY	H	R1a1a1
    kzb004	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1750 - 1620 BCE	XX	U5b2a2	-
    kzb005	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1880 - 1690 BCE	XY	HV0a	R1a1a1
    kzb006	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1745 - 1620 BCE	XX	U2e2a1a2	-
    kzb007	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1755 - 1630 BCE	XY	U5a1	R1a1a1
    kzb008	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1880 -1690 BCE	XY	HV0a	R1a1a1
    kzb009	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1745 - 1620 BCE	XX	U4b1a1a1	-
    mur001	Muradym 8	Srubno-alakulskaya	ND	XX	H2a1	-
    mur002	Muradym 8	Srubno-alakulskaya	ND	XY	K1a4b	?
    mur003	Muradym 8	Srubno-alakulskaya	1880 - 1685 BCE	XY	T2a1	R1a1a1?
    mur004	Muradym 8	Srubno-alakulskaya	1885 - 1695 BCE	XX	J1c5e	-
    (*) Individuals previously used in a study focusing on mitochondrial genomes (Juras et al.2017) and are thus reported elsewhere.


    Last edited by Bardock; 10-04-2018 at 04:05 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dick View Post
    Lmfao. Jokes aside, I hope someone can get a hold of the data to flesh out what clades they all belong to. That Q1a definitely seems interesting for Cimmerians, and the presence of R1b. Seems to kill the theory that some think Cimmerians were I2 derived. I imagine most of the R1a is Z93 but I suppose we'll see. That early middle ages Sarmatian with R1a is quite interesting.

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    BUMP

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    https://www.alphagalileo.org/en-gb/P...tureCode/en-GB

    “There is so much genetic variation among the Scythians, it seems that you didn’t have to be born a Scyth to be a part of their community”, says Anders Gtherstrm, Professor at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.

    This is likely the strategy needed for the group to have been able to grow as fast, expand as vast and to remain established for as long as they did. The findings emphasize the importance of assimilation to maintain Scythian dominance around the Black Sea region.

    “It also sheds light on their attitude towards conquered people. Scythians are often thought of as an extremely aggressive group, but their gradual genetic expansion show us that they were also a group prepared to interact with and take in new people. For example, in one burial ground we found individuals of different genetic background buried according to Scythian tradition. This tells us that Scythians seem to have incorporated people from other groups into their families and their community”, says Maja Krzewińska researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.

    The vast area of the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region has worked as a motor for demographic events throughout Eurasia, especially in the western part of the meta-continent. Crucial events in European history and prehistory can be traced back to people of the Steppe. Including the invention of horseback riding, chariots, a new type of warfare and the spread of Indo-European languages.

    “The Central Eurasian Steppe seems to have been a very dynamic place. An important geographical region which acted both as a melting-pot and a nursery of people, as well as communicative and technological innovations. This is where people met, shared ideas and genes. From this ‘pit-stop’ genes and ideas were spread from the East to the West”, says Glşah Merve Kılın researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.

    An international research team, led from Stockholm University, have investigated genomic data from 35 individuals, spanning 2 200 years. The material mainly consists of human remains from the southern Urals and central Eurasian Steppe. The researchers have analyzed DNA from four different nomadic groups; Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians and Bronze Age Srubanya individuals.

    Even though a couple of the groups had an early history somewhere else all the groups share genetic background and follow each other chronologically. The Cimmerians were displaced by the Scythians and those in return were followed by the Sarmatians.

    “It’s not one group completely displacing another. The expansion process seems to have been more gradual. First from Altai to southern Urals, and thereafter further west. It suggests that the Pontic-Caspian Steppe served as a natural transition point and the source of western nomads, despite their cultural roots stretching further east”, says Maja Krzewińska researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dick View Post
    Supposedly scy197 and scy301 aren't R1b, but E-V13 and I2-Y7219, respectively.

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    scy304 is R1b-Z2103 (M12149/Y4371/Z8128+)
    scy305 is R1b-Z2103>Z2106 (Z2106+, Y12538/Z8131+)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dick View Post
    ...........................
    Heres the Doc with all the subclades of the sample findings.

    https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets...2mo/edit#gid=0

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    Supposedly Scy009 clusters with Poles. He was R1b-P312.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Bardock View Post
    Heres the Doc with all the subclades of the sample findings.

    https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets...2mo/edit#gid=0
    I'm somewhat skeptical about the Subclade predictions. The actual study notes that both the E-V13 and I2a2a Scythian are in fact R1b-M269
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