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Thread: Megaliths in South India. Are temples continuation of these structures ?

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    Post Megaliths in South India. Are temples continuation of these structures ?

    Megaliths are spread across the Indian subcontinent, though the bulk of them are found in peninsular India, concentrated in the states of Maharashtra (mainly in Vidarbha), Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

    Megaliths were constructed either as burial sites or commemorative (non-sepulchral) memorials. The former are sites with actual burial remains, such as dolmenoid cists (box-shaped stone burial chambers), cairn circles (stone circles with defined peripheries) and capstones (distinctive mushroom-shaped burial chambers found mainly in Kerala). The urn or the sarcophagus containing the mortal remains was usually made of terracotta. Non-sepulchral megaliths include memorial sites such as menhirs. (The line separating the two is a bit blurry, since remains have been discovered underneath otherwise non-sepulchral sites, and vice versa.)

    Taken together, these monuments lend these disparate peoples the common traits of what we know as megalithic culture, one which lasted from the Neolithic Stone Age to the early Historical Period (2500 BC to AD 200) across the world. In India, archaeologists trace the majority of the megaliths to the Iron Age (1500 BC to 500 BC), though some sites precede the Iron Age, extending up to 2000 BC.

    The discovery of a stone axe with what seemed to be inscriptions in the Harappan script from a burial chamber in Tamil Nadu did bring up the tantalizing possibility of cultural contact between Harappans and the megalithic people.

    Iravatham Mahadevan, renowned epigraphist and vocal proponent of the Dravidian origins of Harappan civilization, had declared, “This confirms that the Neolithic people of Tamil Nadu shared the same language family as the Harappan group, which can only be Dravidian. The discovery provides the first evidence that the Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Dravidian language.”

    According to archaeologists R.K. Mohanty and V. Selvakumar, around 2,200 megalithic sites can be found in peninsular India itself, most of them unexcavated

    Based on archaeobotanical research, Mukund Kajale of University College London posited that megalithic people carried out agricultural activity in both the rabi and kharif seasons. A large variety of grains such as rice, wheat, kodo millet, barley lentil, black gram, horse gram, common pea, pigeon pea and Indian jujube have been recovered from habitations, showing that the subcontinent has displayed remarkable gastronomic continuity over three millennia.

    the collapse of trade gave rise to a change in the urban character of the Harappan civilization. The Harappans then diffused eastwards and came into contact with the early agricultural settlements in the Gangetic plain and moved southwards, and gradually reverted to a more primitive way of life. This is indicated by the smaller, but greater number of settlements found after 1800 BC, compared to earlier sites.

    “They again gradually developed themselves into prosperous agricultural communities and began to develop into complex societies. Megalithism indicates the developments of a second urbanization, a chieftain society or chiefdoms, as reflected in monumental architecture as well as other aspects: surplus being generated, multiple crops including cash crops and horticultural crops, mineral, stones. Essentially, the emergence of Megalithic period marks the beginning of second urbanization in various parts of India beyond what was covered by Indus Valley Civilization,” says Korisettar.
    n concordance with their belief in life after death, the megalithic people were in the habit of interring burial goods along with mortal remains. These can be broadly categorized as “ceramic, iron and copper artefacts, beads of various raw materials, gold & silver ornaments, terracotta objects, objects of art and miscellaneous objects”, according to Chakrabarti.

    The range of iron artefacts recovered indicate that the megalithic people practised a wide range of occupations and included carpenters, cobblers, bamboo craftsmen, lapidaries engaged in gemstone work, blacksmiths, coppersmiths and goldsmiths, proof of complex social organization. Beads made of various semi-precious stones and steatite have also been found. Bronze figurines of animals like buffaloes, goats, tigers, elephants and antelopes have been recovered from inside urn burials at the site of Adichanallur in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.

    Significantly, Roman coins have been found in some megalithic burials in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. “Finding of coins from megalithic burial has chronological significance of their [megalithic people’s] continuation till the early historic period and interaction of trade,” notes Chakrabarti.

    In fact, megalithic culture finds several references in ancient Tamil Sangam literature. For instance, menhirs are referred to as nadukal. Ancient Sangam texts lay out, in detail, a step-by-step procedure for laying a memorial stone or nadukal in honour of a fallen hero. According to an article by E. Iniyan, former guest lecturer at the University of Madras, in the International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, this procedure later evolved into the rituals for the consecration of idols in Hindu temples, as described in the Tamil Agamas, a collection of sect-specific scriptures.

    “Manimekalai (5th century AD), the famous Buddhist epic, refers to the various kinds of burials namely cremation (cuṭuvōr), post excarnation burial (iṭuvōr), burying the deceased in a pit (toṭukuḻip paṭuvōr), rock chamber or cist burial (tāḻvāyiṉ aṭaippōr), urn burial encapped with lid (tāḻiyiṟ kavippōr). Even in the Sangam age (when kingship and a well ordained society had emerged) the above modes of burials survived,” writes Iniyan.

    Also, there are indirect references to dolmens as pantar kal, which has evolved into today’s pandal, a temporary tent-like structure, says Selvakumar.

    sourced from https://www.livemint.com/Sundayapp/a...-in-stone.html credits Rajat Ubhaykar





    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journ...0E249C5180EF3B
    https://asome.uab.cat/Sanganakallu-Kupgal.pdf

    ALA019, I7179,ALX002,IKI019,I5470, PCA44, HUNPer2,K2per33_GE, DA101, I1656, R67, SZ35, I658, MHper9_GE,I1955,Jomon Sanganji_131421,VEK009, OSS001, I2959, I12294, I1290,AH2,I1661, I7036, JK2067, I0575, LSD019, ASH008_ASH_IA2,9314_Oss,I9010,Rise509,QED-7 2 12

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    Many of these early sites had continuation to the present day of H1a1 people in the Subcontinent. It has been found in the major civilizations on such as early IVC (Jiroft - Shahr-i-Sokta), Gonur BMAC, Swat valley etc... as H1a1d2-M2826>M69>M52>M82>M2914>Z4361

    I11459; 2875-2631 BC; Shahr-i Sokhta; Iran; Jiroft Culture (Indus_periphery)
    I10409; 2280-2044 BC; Gonur; Turkmenistan; Gonur2_BA (Indus_periphery)
    I12447; 1000-800 BC; Katelai; Pakistan; SPGT
    I12143; 1000-800 BC; Katelai; Pakistan; SPGT

    The complete calls for one of oldest H1a1a4b found as follows.

    I11459 belongs to H1a1a4b
    2875-2631 calBCE (4150±25 BP, PSUAMS-5715) BA Indus_Periphery10 Shahr_I_Sokhta_BA2 Yes Seistan, Shahr-i Sokhta Iran Iran / Turan 30.649857 61.400311 M W3a1b H1a1d2 (old classification)

    CF143/PF2587
    CF2639
    CT:CTS10110/M5767
    CT:CTS11827/M5816
    CT:CTS1217/M5597
    CT:CTS4740/PF751/M5684
    CT:CTS5318/M5690
    CT:CTS5746/M5697
    CT:CTS8980/PF928/V3310/M5748
    CT:CTS9722/M5762
    CT:L1462/M5587
    CT:M5588/PF210
    CT:M5601
    CT:M5624
    CT:M5627
    CT:M5628
    CT:M5631/PF292/V1878
    CT:M5656
    CT:M5723/PF862
    CT:M5775
    CT:M9022/V1863
    CTF143
    CTF328
    CT:Y1450
    CT:Y1496
    CT:Y1525
    CT:Y1531
    CT:Y1537
    CT:Y1571
    CT:Y1580
    CT:Y7546/Z17702
    D1:F1548/Z1594
    E1b1a1:CTS1445/Z1107
    E1b1b1b2b2a1a1b:M5797.2/PF1098.2
    F:CTS3536/PF2666/M3688
    F:F1416/M3660/PF2626
    F:F2142/PF2688
    F:F2837/M3726/V3477/PF2722
    F:F3136/M3741/PF2737
    F:L470/PF2730/M3735/V3900
    F:M3743/PF2739
    F146/PF2623
    F187/PF2632
    FF2643
    G2a1a1a1a1a1a1b1:FGC756/Z16575
    GHIJK:CTS2569/PF2661/M3684
    H1a1a4b:M2706/Z4362
    H1a1a4b:M2793/Z4372
    H1a1a4b:M2827/Z4375
    H1a1a4b:M2925/Z4618
    H1a1a4b:M3012/Z4400
    H1a1a4b:M3029/Z4404
    H1a1a4b:Z14526
    H1a1a4b:Z14529
    H1a1a4b:Z4371
    H1a1:AM00833/Z4349H1a1a:M2953
    H1a1:L182/M3034
    H1a1:M2704/Z4163
    H1a1:M2717/Z4172
    H1a1:M2743/Z4186
    H1a1:M2802
    H1a1:M2810
    H1a1:M2829/Z4222
    H1a1:M2878/Z4246
    H1a1:M2891/Z4249
    H1a1:M2922
    H1a1:M2937/Z4274
    H1a1:M3064/Z4342
    H1a1:Z4202
    H1a1:Z4212
    H1a1:Z4305
    H1a1:Z4310
    H1a2b1a:Z14390
    H1a:M2701/Z4162
    H1a:M2817
    H1a:M2954/Z4281
    H1a:M3069/Z4345
    H1a:M3087
    H1a:Y2582
    H1:Z4210
    HIJK:F929/M578/PF3494
    H:M2896/Z4251
    J1b1:M2747/Z4189
    J2a1a1a2a2b2:SK194/V2386
    J2a:L152
    J2a:L375
    M1:Z30945
    R1b1a1b:L777/YSC0000248
    R1b1b2:Z30239


    Now the calls include J1b1, J2a, R1b1a1b, R1b12, M1 which are diverse ones. Also looking at other megalith sites in South India the skeletons seem to suggest that they could be Grimaldi like from Italy & some are austroid & Indian ones. Does it indicate that during the Megalith time frame there was an active civilization exchange along the coasts stretching from Europe to Japan & Australia.

    https://www.thehindu.com/news/nation...le22431890.ece





    Was there a huge network of ocean based route that was multiracial & trade based ? Looks like the early trade networks ran from Europe to Japan & Australia during 2nd & 3rd millenium. Many sites in South India that had megaliths were found with multiracial skeletons.
    https://www.thehindu.com/news/nation...le22431890.ece

    Adichanallur is a very popular archaeological site in Tamil Nadu due to quite a bit of controversy revolving around the fact it has not been fully excavated, neither have the findings given their due credit and attention. The site is about 40 Km from Thoothukudi 15 Km from Korkai, the capital of the early Pandyan Empire. The urn-burial site was excavated in 1876 by a German archaeologist named Dr Jagor. It was a random excavation that led to the discovery of this archaeological gold-mine.

    Alexander Rea, the superintending archaeologist who was also an Englishman excavated the site in 1889 and 1905. Rae wrote an article titled “Prehistoric antiquities in Tinnevelly”, it is part of the ASI – Archaeological Survey of India’s annual report in 1902-1903. He described the site as “the most extensive prehistoric site as yet discovered in southern if not in the whole of India…. The site was first brought to notice in 1876 when it was visited by Dr Jagor of Berlin, accompanied by the Collector of Tinnevelly and the District Engineer.”


    Louis Lapique, a Frenchman also excavated the Adichanallue site in 1904. The ASI excavated the area in 2004 and about 160 buried earthenware urns were found. They contained skeletons dating back to 1800 BCE, they are said to contain writings in rudimentary, Tamil Brahmi. Some burial urns are said to contain the skeletons of Aboriginals, Austroliods, Caucasians, Mongoloids and Mediterranean’s who suffered seafaring.

    Archaeologist think Adichanallur could have been a crowded town that was fortified. It had a separate potter’s quarters and indications of industrial activity are seen
    https://www.ancient-origins.net/anci...arctica-021743

    ALA019, I7179,ALX002,IKI019,I5470, PCA44, HUNPer2,K2per33_GE, DA101, I1656, R67, SZ35, I658, MHper9_GE,I1955,Jomon Sanganji_131421,VEK009, OSS001, I2959, I12294, I1290,AH2,I1661, I7036, JK2067, I0575, LSD019, ASH008_ASH_IA2,9314_Oss,I9010,Rise509,QED-7 2 12

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