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Thread: The Genomic History of the Bronze Age Southern Levant

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    Default The Genomic History of the Bronze Age Southern Levant

    Highlights


    • Analysis of genome-wide data for nine sites from the Bronze Age Southern Levant
    • Contemporaneous samples from multiple sites are genetically similar
    • Migration from the Zagros and/or Caucasus to the Levant between 2500–1000 BCE
    • People related to these individuals contributed to all present-day Levantine populations

      https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S...qHtvF-M3sDNhDo



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    Is this migration from the Zagros/Caucasus connected with the Afro-Asiatic languages or were those languages existent prior to these migrations?

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    K13 Coordinates for samples in this paper:

    Code:
    Yehud_low_coverage:I7179,0.00,0.00,0.00,4.24,36.64,27.23,8.66,0.00,0.00,4.86,5.08,13.30,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I7180,0.00,0.00,11.82,14.35,45.75,25.19,0.00,0.32,0.00,0.80,1.78,0.00,0.00
    Yehud:I7182,2.22,0.00,8.58,13.32,45.92,26.79,2.95,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.22,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I7184,0.00,4.04,17.72,8.08,49.63,17.84,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,2.69
    Megiddo_MLBA_family4:I2189,0.70,19.49,8.37,27.31,32.32,8.63,2.27,0.00,0.65,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.26
    Megiddo_MLBA:I2190,0.00,0.00,11.28,21.95,45.02,15.85,2.95,0.00,0.00,0.00,2.24,0.71,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I2195,0.00,0.00,12.44,20.84,50.21,12.99,1.04,0.00,0.72,0.00,0.00,1.75,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I2198,0.00,0.00,17.80,16.93,46.23,15.21,0.72,0.00,0.11,0.00,0.00,3.00,0.00
    Megiddo_I2200:I2200,8.40,9.41,8.27,28.83,29.33,9.94,3.70,0.86,0.04,0.87,0.00,0.00,0.35
    Abel:I2201,0.00,0.00,14.97,18.99,45.60,17.88,0.39,0.75,0.23,0.00,0.00,1.19,0.00
    Hazor:I3965,0.00,0.00,13.47,22.39,46.49,14.50,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.83,1.07,1.25,0.00
    Hazor:I3966,0.00,0.00,11.69,18.43,48.95,18.00,0.00,0.00,1.34,0.00,0.72,0.87,0.00
    Megiddo_IA:I4517,3.11,0.00,12.06,17.85,44.82,19.37,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.33,1.47,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I4518,0.00,0.00,13.94,21.94,41.30,20.20,0.00,0.50,0.00,0.18,0.00,1.94,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA_family1:I4519,0.00,0.00,17.81,16.04,48.29,15.17,0.00,0.00,2.45,0.00,0.24,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_IBA:I4521,0.71,0.00,13.16,9.03,51.60,22.91,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,2.59,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I4525,0.00,0.00,15.03,17.19,47.53,18.82,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.69,0.15,0.58,0.00
    Baqah_low_coverage:I6463,0.00,4.08,0.00,9.45,44.71,26.99,0.00,0.00,5.48,0.00,2.40,6.89,0.00
    Baqah:I6565,0.00,0.00,8.85,18.80,47.87,21.13,0.10,0.00,0.00,0.00,2.12,1.13,0.00
    Baqah_family6:I6461,0.00,0.00,15.02,16.65,49.41,17.29,0.00,0.20,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.43
    Baqah:I6462,0.00,0.00,12.48,13.50,54.16,16.60,0.00,1.20,0.00,0.00,0.00,2.06,0.00
    Baqah:I6464,0.00,0.00,11.07,11.73,56.71,19.39,0.00,1.11,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Baqah:I6564,0.82,0.00,10.73,16.99,48.39,20.69,0.66,0.00,0.00,0.41,0.00,1.31,0.00
    Baqah:I6566,0.00,0.00,13.60,12.83,52.56,18.07,1.16,0.97,0.00,0.00,0.01,0.80,0.00
    Baqah:I6567,0.00,0.00,14.87,17.12,46.91,19.80,0.00,0.07,0.00,0.00,0.75,0.48,0.00
    Baqah:I6569,0.00,0.00,9.17,17.35,51.76,20.69,0.00,0.69,0.15,0.20,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Baqah:I6570,0.00,0.00,13.81,15.89,49.11,18.94,0.00,0.72,0.00,0.00,0.49,1.03,0.00
    Baqah:I6571,0.00,0.00,13.91,15.38,47.74,20.68,0.00,0.28,0.00,1.14,0.00,0.87,0.00
    Baqah:I6572,0.00,0.00,14.59,15.58,46.47,20.67,0.71,0.74,0.00,0.52,0.20,0.51,0.00
    Baqah:I6459,0.00,0.00,16.37,16.59,47.79,16.02,0.99,0.63,0.00,0.00,0.61,1.00,0.00
    Baqah:I6460,0.00,0.00,12.18,17.88,47.33,19.63,0.00,2.51,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.47,0.00
    Baqah:I3707,0.00,0.00,14.34,11.49,51.10,20.71,0.00,0.53,0.00,0.00,0.57,1.25,0.00
    Baqah:I3985,0.00,0.00,12.46,11.98,55.73,17.72,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.53,0.00,0.59,0.00
    Baqah:I3986,0.00,0.00,12.34,17.88,51.21,16.97,0.00,0.00,0.74,0.00,0.43,0.43,0.00
    Baqah:I3987,0.00,0.00,9.84,16.93,51.46,18.98,0.22,1.42,0.05,0.47,0.45,0.18,0.00
    Baqah:I3705,0.00,0.00,15.45,13.59,48.96,19.43,0.00,1.09,0.00,0.00,0.02,1.46,0.00
    Baqah:I3706,0.00,1.23,13.83,16.41,50.95,15.40,1.09,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.53,0.57,0.00
    Hazor:I3832,0.00,0.00,14.49,10.75,52.04,21.46,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.26,0.00
    Baqah:I3703,0.00,0.00,13.29,18.35,52.13,14.65,0.00,1.13,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.45,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I6932,0.00,0.00,14.84,0.00,51.67,30.74,1.79,0.78,0.18,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I6925,0.00,0.00,3.17,17.73,41.32,37.79,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I6924,0.00,3.15,4.27,17.58,38.33,32.37,0.00,0.00,0.00,3.73,0.57,0.00,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I6928,0.00,0.00,21.96,6.04,45.14,23.96,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.44,0.00,1.46,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I7002,0.00,1.98,11.04,13.84,45.84,25.54,0.00,1.72,0.00,0.00,0.06,0.00,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I6922,0.00,0.00,15.10,11.26,47.02,19.44,0.62,0.00,0.11,6.44,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Yehud:I6923,0.00,0.00,16.34,10.29,44.23,29.02,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.11,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Yehud:I7003,0.00,0.00,17.85,5.17,51.81,21.88,3.01,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.28,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10092,1.34,0.00,11.99,12.57,48.31,22.85,0.00,1.75,0.00,0.00,0.70,0.48,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10093,0.42,0.00,11.26,13.21,48.41,22.87,0.27,0.90,0.00,0.00,0.24,2.42,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA_low_coverage:I10096,1.78,1.05,0.00,27.52,40.55,29.10,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10097,0.00,0.00,13.64,15.91,51.44,17.39,0.00,0.26,0.00,0.00,0.30,1.07,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10099,3.04,0.00,8.09,20.51,48.38,17.57,0.00,0.91,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.50,0.00
    Megiddo_I10100:I10100,15.48,10.19,2.79,28.89,21.57,9.40,5.25,0.00,0.00,3.10,3.33,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA_family3:I10101,4.91,0.00,15.18,10.69,50.11,15.79,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,3.32,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10104,0.00,0.00,6.17,8.26,60.32,22.17,2.03,0.00,0.00,1.06,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10106,0.00,0.00,8.56,17.54,51.27,20.76,0.00,0.97,0.00,0.00,0.90,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10263,0.00,2.82,4.54,17.63,49.61,21.15,0.00,0.00,2.43,0.00,0.32,1.51,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10264,0.00,0.00,9.51,20.42,46.80,19.51,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.92,1.84,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10265,0.00,0.00,7.39,15.37,58.91,13.04,0.00,5.03,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.26,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10266,0.00,0.00,18.34,22.48,46.48,11.75,0.00,0.00,0.20,0.75,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA_low_coverage:I10267,0.00,0.00,1.97,2.58,55.74,30.67,4.61,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,4.43
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10268,0.00,0.00,15.91,15.58,48.48,17.38,0.00,0.25,0.67,0.10,0.72,0.91,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA_low_coverage:I10269,4.46,0.00,21.98,23.15,6.09,15.05,28.45,0.00,0.00,0.82,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA_family3:I10270,0.00,0.00,12.94,16.43,47.27,18.69,2.20,0.00,0.00,0.00,2.46,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I10359,0.00,0.00,6.04,26.93,44.42,18.88,0.00,1.74,1.32,0.00,0.58,0.09,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA_family3:I10361,0.00,0.00,25.27,0.00,51.89,16.42,6.42,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Yehud_low_coverage:I7177,0.00,0.00,8.14,0.00,68.88,22.97,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:I8187,0.00,0.00,12.71,11.93,53.43,20.04,0.00,0.39,0.00,0.31,0.00,1.19,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA_family2:I8188,0.00,0.00,15.19,11.96,53.40,15.71,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.33,3.41,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:S10771.E1.L1,0.00,0.00,14.17,19.63,47.68,16.45,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,2.07,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:S10769.E1.L1,0.00,0.00,9.67,20.98,49.60,17.44,0.00,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.65,0.67,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:S10770.E1.L1,0.00,0.00,7.03,21.05,51.01,16.56,1.42,0.02,0.81,0.00,1.62,0.49,0.00
    Megiddo_MLBA:S10768.E1.L1,2.40,0.00,12.69,15.32,49.55,17.90,0.76,0.00,0.00,0.00,1.39,0.00,0.00

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    Quote Originally Posted by JQP4545 View Post
    Is this migration from the Zagros/Caucasus connected with the Afro-Asiatic languages or were those languages existent prior to these migrations?
    Most likely just Hurrians who were influenced by the Sumerian Uruk era.

    Semitic is not from the Zagros/Caucasus (NorthWest Asia). Semitic is part of an Afro-Euroasian group and is more 'southern' from SouthWest Asia.

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    It would be interesting to discuss how these studies relate to the DNA of ancient Egyptians. If Iranian like DNA did not migrate into the region until 2500 - 1500 BC does that mean it must have been absent from the people who founded Egyptian civilization in 3500 BC? This would mean the DNA of the ancient Egyptian mummies from Abusir el-Meleq could not be representative of the earliest Egyptians because they share DNA from these Iranian/Caucasus related groups. So who were the earliest Egyptians? Were they related to; Natufian? Iberomaurusian? Mota, Ethiopia?

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    Megiddo_IA and Abel_IA are close to Samaritans and Palestinian Christians.

    Yehud IBA samples look like a mixture of Peninsular Arabs with Samaritans.

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