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Thread: My Tier List Average Racial Admixture by Country

  1. #81
    Junior Member santeño_oscuro's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by JanJosimar86 View Post
    La mezcla indomestizo no ronda los 70 a 75% Amerindio y el resto euro y afro?

    Si hace el analisis de las mezclas euro/amerindia/afro hacen de Panama un pais pardo/trirracial y no indomestizo
    Se refiere al rango de herencia euro, pedazo de animal

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    Veteran Member Tenma de Pegasus's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by alnortedelsur View Post
    These are my range estimates for African, Amerindian and European...

    African:



    Amerindian:



    European:

    Agree with 90%

  3. #83
    Senior Member JanJosimar86's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by alnortedelsur View Post
    These are my range estimates for African, Amerindian and European...

    African:



    Amerindian:



    European:


    El promedio SSA en Panama ronda el 24%.

    Panama tiene 2 estudios 2002 y 2016 (ultimo), las estimaciones del estudio del 2002 no tienen congruencia histórica, Panama no puede ser mas SSA que Amerindia . Los censos del 1911 hasta 1950 deja eso basta claro.

    Panama’s unique geographic position has subjected the country’s population to different evolutionary processes since Pre-Columbian times. The population of Panama has suffered one of the most intricate processes of races and culture amalgamation in the Americas within a relatively small population and territory. However, the admixture component of current population is not well understood. The first attempt to determine the gene admixture of the Panamanian population was by Arias et al. (2002) with a sample of 4,200 subjects from across the country but using only two genetic systems of classical markers (A-B-0 and Rh). In addition, these findings might not be representative of the current population of Panama since the population of Panama in the early 2000s was estimated in about 3.05 million, whereas the most recent estimates of 2016 indicate a boom being now estimated in 4.04 million, according to the Panama’s National Institute of Statistics and Census (NISC). In more recent years, a few genetic studies focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (Perego et al. 2012) and Y-chromosome (Grugni etal. 2015) analysis of modern Panamanians. Those studies showed that the majority of mtDNA lineages (83%) are Amerindians with only 14% African and 2% European (Perego et al. 2012). Furthermore, Y-chromosome studies showed 50% contribution of Amerindian, and about 44.1% West-Eurasian with other minor or non-predictable groups (Grugni etal. 2015). However, although these findings are interesting in terms of the information generated, they still do not make clear the admixture problem since the use of uniparental markers might not be representative of the autosomal gene pool of modern Panamanians. For instance, Arias et al. (2002) showed that the admixture of Panama in early 2000s was 38% of African, 36% Amerindian and 25% European genes, thus suggesting that the admixture patterns of modern Panamanians might be more complex.

    It is known that during European conquest and soon after the discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513, Panama became a strategic marketplace and port of exchange of silver, gold, slaves and merchandises transported from South America (Panama city, on the Pacific shore) through the Camino de Cruces (Road of the Crosses) across the isthmus to Portobelo on the Caribbean shore and then shipped to Europe and vice versa (Poveda-Ramos, et al., 2004). This intense commerce activity promoted other events such as massive migratory wave patterns, together with cultural and racial admixture. In the beginning, admixed people (mestizos) were a minority, but ultimately mestizos dominated the majority of the population until present days. Several minorities participated in admixture of Panama, but the three major ancestral groups of this admixed population are ethno-historically grouped as Europeans, Africans and Amerindians (Jaén-Suárez, 1978; 1998).

    The European genetic contribution came mainly from many thousands of Spaniards (mainly men, thus highly contributing to the Y-chromosome gene input) that arrived during and following the conquest. The first Africans arrived to Panama from Western Africa to replace the Amerindian male slaves, which helped the survival and recovery of Amerindian males after the bottleneck and further contributed to the Y-chromosome genes. Several approximations estimate that between the 16th and 17th centuries more than 35,000 Africans arrived to Panama, however, since contraband was very common, it is thought that the real numbers are much higher (Jaén-Suárez, 1978). The second wave of Africans (African-Caribbean) came to Panama during the California gold rush between 1850 and 1855 for the construction of the Panama Railroad. More than 80,000 African-Caribbean workers arrived from the Caribbean islands but most of them returned to their countries. The third African (African-Caribbean) migration wave was associated with the construction of the Panama Canal between 1881-1914 (Maloney, 1993). More than 60,000 workers were employed, of which 44.1% were from Barbados, 24% were from all other Antilles, 25% from Europe, of which 18% were Spaniards, and the remaining 6.9% were from Central and Latin America (Maloney, 1993). These numbers were very significant in those times, since the entire population of the country was estimated at 316,054 inhabitants (Maloney, 1993).

    The Amerindian genetic ancestors of modern mestizos of Panama are remounted before the conquest of Panama in 1510 by Rodrigo de Bastidas. When Spaniards arrived to the Isthmus of Panama, there were multiple small Amerindian groups populating the area. Ethno-historical and demographic data indicate that nearly 500,000 Amerindians populated Panamanian lands in the beginning of 16th century but Chibchan and Cueva-language groups were the two largest Amerindian populations inhabiting the isthmus (Jaén-Suárez, 1998). Archeological and ethno-historical reports indicate that by the time of the Spaniard conquest, many Chibchan groups inhabited the South-Western portion of the isthmus from the Western portion of the Coclé Province to the Eastern part of Northern Costa Rica. Based on ethno-historical and linguistic data it is known that Chibchan’s descendents are the still-living Ngöbe Amerindians (also known as Ngawbe-Guaymi), among other smaller tribes (Jopling, 1994; Cooke, 1982, Barrantes et al., 1990; see maps on Figure 1). Ngöbe population is a well-characterized Amerindian group belonging to the Chibchan-speaking linguistic branch and still inhabits Western Panama (Approximately 260,000 inhabitants, Panama’s NISC) and small regions of Costa Rica (Barrantes et al., 1990, Jorge et al., 2002). The Eastern side of the isthmus was inhabited by other large Amerindian group, the Cueva-language group (or simply Cueva), from the Gulf of Urabá and the Atrato River (Colombia) to the “Indio River” on the Caribbean side of Panama and the Mata Ahogado River on the Pacific side of Panama (Romoli, 1987, Jopling, 1994), (Figure 1). It is thought that unfortunately, Cueva people were extinct as a tribe by 1550, mainly due to diseases, slavery and wars against Spaniards (Romoli, 1987). Their language group is not clear but Cueva are often referred as Chocoan/Paezan-Speaking but others think they were Chibchans (Loewen, 1963, Constenla, 1991). The role of these two major Amerindian families is not well-understood and it has not been accurately addressed in previous admixture studies, thus it remains the question of how different ancestral Amerindian populations contributed to the current gene pool.

    To determine the ancestry of modern Panamanian mestizos we analyzed 15 polymorphic short tandem repeats (STR) autosomal markers and characterize in detail the population genetic structure and admixture per province/regions and the total country. Additionally, we address the question of the Amerindian tribes (Chibchan or Chocoan) ancestry of the modern mestizo population. We determined that the Panamanian population is composed of 24% African, 25% European and 51% Amerindian genes. The entire Amerindian component is from Chibchan origins. Panamanians are highly polymorphic and diverse among the country’s provinces. We thought that these differences in admixture among provinces might be also associated with differences in disease proportions. Therefore, we calculated parameters of biomedical significance including forensic and epidemiological data of the major diseases affecting the population. We focused on prostate cancer and cerebrum-cardiovascular disorders and found that prostate cancer showed higher incidence in provinces with the highest African admixture; whereas cerebrum-cardiovascular disorders showed higher incidence in provinces with the highest European admixture and moderately high African genes. Altogether, these findings suggest that genetic ancestry variability, shaped by ethno-historical events, might play an important role on the health disparities and cultural lifestyles leading to the disease patterns differences found on these populations.

    http://ispub.com/IJBA/9/1/44045#&prodOvrd=RAC
    Last edited by JanJosimar86; 03-05-2021 at 11:22 PM.

  4. #84
    Senior Member JanJosimar86's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by santeño_oscuro View Post
    Se refiere al rango de herencia euro, pedazo de animal
    Animal la que te pario.

  5. #85
    Junior Member santeño_oscuro's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by JanJosimar86 View Post
    Animal la que te pario.
    A mi madre la respetas que es una honorable dama azuerense
    No como la tuya que crio un animal como tú y los que pululan en los barrios bajos de la capital panameña e incluso hasta rabiblancos son asi
    Por eso me da asco su ciudad

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    Junior Member santeño_oscuro's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lozano View Post
    Do you think it's correct? Correct me if so.

    Amerindian Average Admixture



    European Average Admixture




    African (SSA) Average Admixture

    Excelente aporte paisita pero Panama lo pusiera un poco más Amerindio junto a México, Chile y El Salvador
    En el SSA Guatemala debe ir con Argentina y México

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    Veteran Member Daven's Avatar
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    Santero_oscuro, bienvenido de nuevo. Ya se le extran~aba. Como estuvievieron las navidades?

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    Junior Member santeño_oscuro's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Daven View Post
    Santero_oscuro, bienvenido de nuevo. Ya se le extran~aba. Como estuvievieron las navidades?
    Bien ocupado, acá en el campo si no trabajas no comen y si dejamos de trabajar capitalinos mal agradecidos no comen

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    Veteran Member Daven's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by santeño_oscuro View Post
    Bien ocupado, acá en el campo si no trabajas no comen y si dejamos de trabajar capitalinos mal agradecidos no comen
    Que bien hermano. Asi es la vida. Si no trabajamos, no comemos ningunos. Saludos jajajaja


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    Quote Originally Posted by Daven View Post
    No bro. PR is like 12%-15% amerindian. Brazil more like 10%.
    But you are making some sense now that I think about the uncontacted tribes. Aren't there 2 millions of something? Just wordering if that's enough to increase the native a bit.
    No. But if there is uncontacted tribes theres probably consideravle native ancestry in certain parts of brazil. I think north western parts have more native. Especially parts by the amazon and border near ecuador.

    The european rate is inflated because its the southern area of brazil that has mostly euro ancestey maybe. But we nees regional tests.

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