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Thread: Are there any surviving writings of the Bulgar language in medieval Bulgaria?

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    On June 11, 1957, an old Bulgarian rock monastery was discovered during construction work near Murfatlar in northern Dobrogea, 10 km from Constanta, Romania. It was studied between 1957 and 1960. The rock monastery consists of six rock churches, three crypts with cells, two cells without crypts and four connecting galleries. They are formed in the rocks by soft limestone. The most valuable and remarkable thing in the monastery complex for us as Bulgarians, however, are the numerous old Bulgarian inscriptions. They were carved in soft stone. There are many inscriptions in Greek letters, in Glagolitic and Cyrillic, but the most important for Bulgarian history are the inscriptions left on the ancient Bulgarian runic script, which are a total of over 60 in number. In addition to inscriptions, crosses, horses, horsemen, saints, stars, a ship, dragon and braids are painted. There is also a relief plate with a lion, similar to the lion of Stara Zagora. According to scholars, the monastery operated from the middle of the IX to the end of the X century after the adoption of Christianity in Bulgaria. It is believed to have been destroyed by the invasions of the Kiev prince Svetoslav I. After being abandoned by the monks, it was gradually covered with earth and remained hidden for nearly 1000 years.

    Rune inscription from church B1 in the rock monastery Murfatlar - Basarabi, Romania (above). Below: rune contrast and phonetic transcription in Cyrillic.

    Drawing of a monk with a cross with a runic inscription. Church complex in Murfatlar.
    ...Even if a man lives well, he dies and another one comes into existence. Let the one who comes later upon seeing this inscription remember the one who had made it. And the name is Omurtag, Kanasubigi.

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    More from Murfatlar. The inscription M 1 is eight-line and inscribed on a wall in church B4. It consists of 33 characters. A photograph of the inscription was published by Popkonstantinov K. Kronsetiner O. 1994. Attempts to read were made by Dobrev (Dobrev P. 1992).

    The inscription M 3 is carved on the wall in church B4 and consists of 21 signs. A facsimile of the inscription was first published by Barnia (Barnia, J. 1962). Trier read the inscription as: Ohathon (first line), Garithoni (second line), Xagathonid (third line), Attempts to read were made by Dobrev and Voynikov.



    The inscription M 5 is incised above the entrance to the nave of church B1 and consists of 17 signs. For the first time a facsimile of the inscription was published by Barnya (Barnya, J. 1962)


    Inscription M1 is three-line and is located in the rock complex Murfatlar. It consists of 17 characters. A photograph of the inscription was published by Popkonstantinov K. Kronsetiner O. 1994.


    The inscription M7 is engraved on the north wall of the nave of church B4 and consists of 17 signs.

    The inscription M8 is two-line and is incised on the rock complex Murfatlar. It consists of 13 characters


    The inscription M10 is engraved on the north wall of the nave of church B4 and consists of 11 signs.


    The inscription M11 is engraved on the north wall of the nave of church B4 and consists of 11 signs.
    ...Even if a man lives well, he dies and another one comes into existence. Let the one who comes later upon seeing this inscription remember the one who had made it. And the name is Omurtag, Kanasubigi.

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    The inscription M12 is incised to the right of the entrance of church B1 and consists of 11 signs

    The inscription M13 is single-line and is located in the rock complex Murfatlar. It consists of 10 characters.

    The inscription M14 is located in the rock churches of Murfatlar and consists of 10 signs.

    The inscription M15 is engraved on the wall to the left of the entrance to the altar of church B3 and consists of 9 signs.


    The inscription M16 is engraved in church B3 and consists of 9 characters


    The inscription M17 is engraved on a column in church B4 and consists of 9 characters.

    The inscription M35 is engraved above the head of a saint on the south wall of church B4 and consists of 4 signs.

    The inscription M48 is located in the Murfatlar monastery complex and consists of 3 characters. A facsimile of the inscription was first published by Barnea I. 1962. In Beshevliev the inscription is under number 1 (Beshevliev, V. 1977). Triarski reads the inscription as: Xristos.


    The inscription M51 is carved on the wall in burial chamber C1 and consists of 3 characters.
    ...Even if a man lives well, he dies and another one comes into existence. Let the one who comes later upon seeing this inscription remember the one who had made it. And the name is Omurtag, Kanasubigi.

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    Quote Originally Posted by PAGANE View Post
    Proto-Bulgarian inscription written in Greek from 813. It was found near the village of Hambarlii (today Malomirovo), Elhovo municipality, Yambol district.
    Original text


    "[Ο Κρουμος ο] [ά] -
    ρχον ?? ΒΗΝΝΟ. ε- ξήλθεν ης (σονσταν) ηνόπο- (λη) ν (με τον λαόν) αυτού.


    [κ] ε ο αδελφός αυ- [τ] ού ουκ εληθάρ- [γ] ησεν αυτόν κε εξήλ- [θ] εν κε έδοκε [ν] αυτόν ο θεό- σ κο ήμοσεν [τ] άδε <? Ε> την Σερδη- κήν, την <ν> Δεβελ- τόν, την Κονστα- ντήαν, την (Βερσ) ηνι- κάν, Α. What? τα δε λυπά κ [άσ] - τρα δεδοκεν ο θε [ό] ς φόβον κε ά [φ] ηκ- [α] ν κε έφυγαν κ- ε ο κά [τ] ο ο το τούτον, <τ> οπου ε [ξ] ή- λθε (ν με) τον όλον λαόν κε έκ (α) ψ (εν τα) χορήα ημόν <ν> α [υ] - το (ς) ] ο φαρακλός [κ] ε επήρεν όλα κε τους όρκους ε- λησμόνησεν κε εξ- [ήελ επή [αυτον) βασ] ηλέ [α] ε [νίκησεν? εφόνευσεν?] ΟΝ? Ε .. κε απήλθεν ...να ...... [κ] ε ερήμ (ο) σα την

    Translation according to Beshevliev


    "[Krum, the archon of the suburbs, went out with his army against Adrianople] and his brother did not forget him, but he also came out. And God (that is, Krum) allowed him to devastate the following places and fortresses: Serdica, Debelt, Constance, Versinikia, Adrianople. He captured these powerful fortresses. And the other fortresses God gave (that is, breathed) fear and they (that is, the Greeks) left them and fled to the lower earth (that is, today's Turkish Thrace). He did not forget this land, from where he had come out with all his army and had burned our lands alone, the old emperor, the bald man, and had taken everything and forgotten the oaths, and the archon Krum came out against him to fight ....... and went to ....... devastated ......


    and Signs on a horn from Pliska


    Family tamgas or production signs based on stone material used in the construction of Pliska


    Aul near the village of Tsar Krum. Signs on bricks and tiles



    and Pliska, the Great Pool. Bronze object with runic inscription




    Malak Preslavets, Silistra region. An inscription telling about the victories of Khan Krum





    Three commemorative inscriptions of fallen military leaders from the time of Omurtag



    Sechishte village (Suleiman-kyoi), Shumen region.
    Part of the text of the peace treaty concluded between Omurtag and Byzantium in 817. Inscription on a column
    are these written in a Turkic language?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Crn Volk View Post
    is this part of the Iranic Bulgar hypothesis?

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    [QUOTE = викторслава; 7320431] написани ли са на тюркски език? [/QUOTE]

    No, the ones you mentioned are written in Greek and in Greek letters
    ...Even if a man lives well, he dies and another one comes into existence. Let the one who comes later upon seeing this inscription remember the one who had made it. And the name is Omurtag, Kanasubigi.

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    Quote Originally Posted by викторслава View Post
    is this part of the Iranic Bulgar hypothesis?
    Seems that way, but it does show Bulgar inscriptions albeit with a revisionist explanatory tone.

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    [QUOTE = викторслава; 7320431] написани ли са на тюркски език? [/QUOTE]

    And here they are written in Greek letters, but in the language of the proto-Bulgarians close to the Turkic languages. It is a list of weapons




    And here is an excerpt from a list of weapons from the village of Dlazhko, as can be seen between the Greek letters there are inserted and proto-Bulgarian runes.

    ...Even if a man lives well, he dies and another one comes into existence. Let the one who comes later upon seeing this inscription remember the one who had made it. And the name is Omurtag, Kanasubigi.

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    Quote Originally Posted by PAGANE View Post
    [QUOTE = викторслава; 7320431] написани ли са на тюркски език?
    And here they are written in Greek letters, but in the language of the proto-Bulgarians close to the Turkic languages. It is a list of weapons


    is there any thorough analysis off these texts and their full translations?

    And here is an excerpt from a list of weapons from the village of Dlazhko, as can be seen between the Greek letters there are inserted and proto-Bulgarian runes.

    [/QUOTE]

    what do they say in Turkic?

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    The largest inscription - the one from Preslav, lists the armaments of two high Bulgarian dignitaries - one of the rank of ICHIRGU BOYLA and another of the rank of TORTUNA PILI JOPAN. The inscription reads:

    ZITKOI ITZIRGU BOILA
    HOUMS-HI KJUPE 455
    TOULS-HI 540
    ESTROGIN KJUPE 427
    TOULS-HI 854
    TURTUNA PILE ZHUPAN
    ESTRJUGIN KJUPE 20
    TOULS-HI 40
    ALHASI KJUPE 1
    HLOUBRIN
    It is interpreted as a list of weapons due to the frequent repetition of the word KJUPE (meaning "armament, armor" in many Eastern languages) and also from the fact that against each occurrence of the word KJUPE there are numbers expressed in letters. The numbers certainly show the number of weapons that each dignitary must have possessed. This feature has already been discovered by the first researchers of the inscription - J. Denis and J. Venedikov, and it is an important contribution to its decipherment. Researchers have so far tried to explain the inscriptions only with the help of Turkic languages, which, however, do not have words such as "estrogin" and "chlobrin" and designations such as "humski kyupe" and "alhasi kyupe". Thus the inscription can be translated in half. Below is a systematic list of terms in the inscription and their meaning in some Eastern languages:
    ZITKOY ICIRGU BOYLA. Since the sound "ch" is missing in Greek, a possible explanation for the first word ZITKOI is given by the Eastern Iranian term CHITKA - "fortification, moat", which is still used in the Tajik language in the form of CHUDGOH - a fortified military camp. In the Caucasus (among the Chechens and Legions) from this root are formed the words CHUCH -VAR - ditch, fortified with stones, and CHUTKIYA - cover. The end -I is also well known in Eastern Iranian languages.
    ALHASI KUPE. We already know the second part of the expression, but now we want to define what the word "alhasi" means. The Preslav inscription shows that the Alhasi Coupe armament was not a normal armament, available in large quantities - there was only one of them, compared to 400 or more copies of other armaments. Therefore, the translation of "alhasi coupe" as "postal armor" made by previous researchers of the inscription is very incredible. Postal armor was not uncommon, on the contrary - it was the most common type of armor for the areas from which the proto-Bulgarians came. The combination

    ALHASI KJUPE means something else. Instructions for its meaning come from the languages ​​of those peoples who once lived in the vicinity of Kubrat Bulgaria (North Caucasus and Southern Russia). In some of these languages ​​(eg Georgian) the word ALHASI means siege machine. Therefore, it can be assumed that in the proto-Bulgarian language ALHASI KJUPE did not mean a general type of armor, but large protective equipment with observation towers. This explains why, unlike other types of weapons - "chumshi kjupe", "estrogin kjupe", the weapon "alchasi kjupe" is mentioned only in one copy in Preslav. but large defenses with watchtowers. This explains why, unlike other types of weapons - "chumshi kjupe", "estrogin kjupe", the weapon "alchasi kjupe" is mentioned only in one copy in Preslav. but large defenses with watchtowers. This explains why, unlike other types of weapons - "chumshi kjupe", "estrogin kjupe", the weapon "alchasi kjupe" is mentioned only in one copy in Preslav.


    ESTROGIN CUPE. This expression from Preslav has remained untranslated so far. Comparing the word "estrogen" with the Hungarian "tarragon", a kind of canopy, cannot solve the problem. However, in a number of small Pamir languages, the word 'estrika' means knitting, from which the adjective 'estrigin' (knitted) is derived. Conditions of this type have been observed in the Pamirs since the first century AD. Therefore, it is very likely that the proto-Bulgarian "ESTROGIN KJUPE" means "postal armor", ie. the typical eastern type of armor. The Preslav inscription shows that the defenders of Preslav had a total of 427 weapons of the "estrogen coupe" type. Such a large quantity can be considered postal mail.

    HOUMS-HI KJUPE. This somewhat difficult expression has been translated as "soft armor" so far. The reason for this was the slight similarity between HOUMS-HI and the Turkic JUMSHAK. However, it would be difficult to find people who call their armor "soft." If we take into account the fact that due to the missing sound "sh" in the Greek language the combination "sh" is used instead, it can be assumed that the word HOUMS-HI KJUPE sounded like HUMSHI KJUPE in Proto-Bulgarian, which greatly facilitates investigations. In the regions adjacent to the former Kubrat Bulgaria in the Caucasus, even today the word HUNCHI (shaped, cast in metal) is found, which resembles the proto-Bulgarian term HUMSHI. In more detail, under the Caucasian word HUMCHI is hidden the Sumerian Akkadian term HUMSJU (molded piece). Thus, the unsettled expression HOUMS-HI KJUPE does not mean "soft armor", but cast armor, ie. a type of armor common in the Middle Ages. The Nadslav inscription shows that the weapon, called HUMSHI KJUPE, was available in large quantities, which also fits very well with the assumption that it means molded, not "soft" armor.


    TOULS-HI. The translation of this word by previous researchers, who all agreed that it should be translated as a helmet, was quite accurate. Also, the quantity of this item was large (over 1000 pieces), which correlates with the number of the above-mentioned weapons, as wearing helmets was mandatory. So far, the Turkic word "tuldzha" is the only form proposed as similar to the word "touls-hi". But, as in the case of "kjupe", no further attempts have been made to find similarities. Given that the proto-Bulgarian word is pronounced as "tulshi" (since the Greek combination "sh" sometimes meant the sound "sh"), it seems that the proto-Bulgarian word is closer to the Sumerian Akkadian term TULSJU (helmet) (formed by the Sumerian root TUL [cover]) and not the Turkic "


    HLOBRIN. There was a consensus that this word, like the word ESTROGIN, was of Turkic origin and was considered to mean "saddle". But HLOBRIN had to be a very rare article, as Preslav's inscription mentions only one copy of it, which obviously contradicts his interpretation as a "saddle". Like the proto-Bulgarian word HLOBRIN, there were some ancient terms common among Indo-European peoples, such as the Pamir word "hulburae" (protective cover) and the Celtic word "hlubram" (canopy). Therefore, HLOBRIN was most likely a large defensive device used to attack fortresses.
    ranslation of the entire Preslav inscription / after I. Dobrev / as:


    THE FORTRESS (or THE REINFORCED CAMP)
    THERE ARE 455 SUMMER ARMORS
    AND 540 HELMET,
    427 Postal Armor
    AND 854 HELMET.
    THE CHIEF PRIEST OF THE TRIBE IS
    20 POSTAL ARMORS,
    40 HELMET,
    A FIGURE TOWER
    AND ONE STATION.
    ...Even if a man lives well, he dies and another one comes into existence. Let the one who comes later upon seeing this inscription remember the one who had made it. And the name is Omurtag, Kanasubigi.

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