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Thread: Armenian Highland Geography to Ethno-genesis: Prehistory - Antiquity

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    Default Armenian Highland Geography to Ethno-genesis: Prehistory - Antiquity

    DISCLAIMER: PLEASE DO NOT DERAIL THE THREAD!

    Armenian Highland





    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia
    The Armenian Highland (for names in other languages see below; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland[1], simply Armenia[2]; erroneously referred to as "Eastern Anatolia" or "Eastern Asia Minor"[3]) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.[2] To its west is the Anatolian plateau which rises slowly from the lowland coast of the Aegean Sea and rises to an average height of 3,000 feet (910 m).[2] In Armenia, the average height rises dramatically from 3,000 feet (910 m) to 7,000 feet (2,100 m).[2] To its southeast is the Iranian plateau, where the elevation drops rapidly to an average 2,000 feet (610 m) to 5,000 feet (1,500 m) feet above sea level.[2]



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    Default Pre-History

    Ethno-Genesis:

    Mitanni

    Hattians

    Hatti-Hurrian (Mitanni)


    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia on Mitanni
    Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform KUR URUMi-ta-an-ni, also Mittani Mi-it-ta-ni) or Hanigalbat (Assyrian Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat) was a loosely organized Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from ca. 1500 BC–1300 BC. Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class governing a predominately Hurrian population, Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite[1] Babylon created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. At the beginning of its history, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite empire, Mitanni and Egypt made an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination. At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, it had outposts centered around its capital, Washukanni, whose location has been determined by archaeologists to be on the headwaters of the Khabur River. Eventually, Mitanni succumbed to Hittite and later Assyrian attacks, and was reduced to the status of a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire.

    Their sphere of influence is shown in Hurrian place names, personal names and the spread through Syria of a distinct pottery type.
    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia on Hattians
    The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in present-day central part of Anatolia, Turkey, noted at least as early as the empire of Sargon of Akkad (ca. 2300 BC),[1] until they were gradually displaced and absorbed ca. 2000–1700 BC by Indo-European Hittites, who adopted their name for the "land of Hatti".
    Hittites




    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia on Hittites
    The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia. They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c. the 14th century BC, encompassing a large part of Anatolia, north-western Syria about as far south as the mouth of the Litani River (in present-day Lebanon), and eastward into upper Mesopotamia. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots.[1] By the mid-14th century BC (under king Suppiluliuma I) carving out an empire that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. After c. 1180 BC, the empire disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some surviving until the 8th century BC.

    Around 5000 BC, the region centered in Hattusa, that would later become the core of the Hittite kingdom, was inhabited by people with a distinct culture who spoke a non-Indo-European language. The name "Hattic" is used by Anatolianists to distinguish this language from the Indo-European Hittite language that appeared on the scene at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC and became the administrative language of the Hittite kingdom over the next six or seven centuries. As noted above, "Hittite" is a modern convention for referring to this language. The native term was Nesili, i.e. "In the language of Neša".

    The early Hittites, whose prior whereabouts are unknown, borrowed heavily from the pre-existing Hattian culture, and also from that of the Assyrian traders — in particular, the cuneiform writing and the use of cylindrical seals.

    Since Hattic continued to be used in the Hittite kingdom for religious purposes, and there is substantial continuity between the two cultures, it is not known whether the Hattic speakers — the Hattians— were displaced by the speakers of Hittite, were absorbed by them, or just adopted their language.
    NOTE: On Hittites, there seems to be three era of kingdoms. In each stage there seems to have been massive restructuring. More to come later.

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    Default Luwian

    Luwian:

    Luwian



    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia on Luwians
    Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is an extinct language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. Luwian is closely related to Hittite, and was among the languages spoken during the second and first millennia BC by population groups in central and western Anatolia and northern Syria.[1] In the Old Hittite version of the Hittite Code, all or some Luwian-speaking areas were called Luwiya. One scholar has argued that the Mycenaean Greek term ru-wa-ni-jo, attested in Linear B syllabic script refers to the same area.[2] The general consensus amongst scholars is that Luwian was spoken—to a greater or lesser degree—across a large area of western Anatolia, including (possibly) Wilusa (= Troy), the Seha River Land (to be identified with the Hermos and/or Kaikos valley), and the kingdom of Mira-Kuwaliya with its core territory of the Maeander valley.[3] This is suggested by, among other things, an admittedly corrupt late copy of the Hittite laws in which the geographical term Luwiya is replaced with Arzawa,[4] a western Anatolian kingdom corresponding roughly with Mira and the Seha River Land (although one scholar has argued that a chain of scribal error and revision led to this substitution, and that Luwiya was not coterminous with Arzawa but was further east in the area of the Konya plain[5]). In the post-Hittite era, the region of Arzawa came to be known as Lydia (Assyrian Luddu, Greek Λυδία), where the Lydian language was in use. The name Lydia has been convincingly derived from the name Luwiya (Lydian *lūda- < *luw(i)da- < luwiya- with the regular Lydian sound change of y > d), which further argues in favour of the location of Luwiya in the west.[6]

    Luwian is closely related to, though not the direct ancestor of Lycian.[7] Luwian has also been adduced as one of the likely candidates for the language spoken by the Trojans,[8] alongside a possible Tyrrhenian language (related to Lemnian), Thracian, and Greek.

    Beginning in the fourteenth century BC, Luwian native speakers came to constitute the majority of the population of the Hittite capital Hattusa.[9] It appears that by the time of the collapse of the Hittite Empire ca. 1180 BC, the Hittite king and the members of the royal family were fully bilingual in Luwian. Long after the extinction of the Hittite language, Luwian continued to be spoken in the Neo-Hittite states of Syria, such as Milid and Carchemish, as well as in the central Anatolian kingdom of Tabal that flourished in the 8th century BC.[10]

    Luwian has been preserved in two writing systems, namely the Anatolian adaptation of Mesopotamian cuneiform and Anatolian hieroglyphs.

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    Default Urartu:

    Urartu:

    Urartu



    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia on Urartu
    Urartu (Assyrian: māt Urarṭu;[2] Babylonian: Urashtu), corresponding to Ararat or Kingdom of Van (Urartian: Biai, Biainili;[3]) was an Iron Age kingdom centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highland. Strictly speaking, Urartu is the Assyrian term for a geographical region, while "kingdom of Urartu" or "Biainili lands" are terms used in modern historiography for the Iron Age state that arose in that region. That a distinction should be made between the geographical and the political entity was already pointed out by Knig (1955).[4] The landscape corresponds to the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and the Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highlands. The kingdom rose to power in the mid 9th century BC and was conquered by Media in the early 6th century BC.

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    Default Greco-Phrygian Expansion

    Phrygia:

    Phrygia



    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia on Phrygia
    In antiquity, Phrygia ( /ˈfrɪdʒiə/; Greek: Φρυγία, Ancient Greek: [pʰryɡa]) Turkish: Frigya) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey, centered around the Sakarya River.

    The Phrygians are most famous for their legendary kings of the heroic age of Greek mythology: Gordias whose Gordian Knot would later be untied by Alexander the Great, Midas who turned whatever he touched to gold, and Mygdon who warred with the Amazons. According to Homer's Iliad, the Phrygians were close allies of the Trojans and participants in the Trojan War against the Greeks. Phrygian power reached its zenith in the late 8th century BC under another, historical King Midas, who dominated most of western and central Anatolia and rivaled Assyria and Urartu for power in eastern Anatolia. This later Midas was however also the last independent king of Phrygia before its capital Gordium was sacked by Cimmerians around 695 BC. Phrygia then became subject to Lydia, and then successively to Persia, Alexander and his Hellenistic successors, Pergamon, Rome and Byzantium. Phrygians were gradually assimilated into other cultures by the early medieval era, and the name Phrygia passed out of usage as a territorial designation after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia.

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    Default Aim of Thread:

    The aim of the thread is to introduce members to Armenian pre-history. This by no mean is a replacement, rather, just some information I will post periodically about Armenian ethno-genesis and geography from Pre-History to Antiquity.

    Proto-Armenian

    Proto-Armenian

    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia on Proto-Armenian
    The earliest testimony of the Armenian language dates to the 5th century AD (the Bible translation of Mesrob Mashtots). The earlier history of the language is unclear and the subject of much speculation. It is clear that Armenian is an Indo-European language, but its development is opaque. In any case, Armenian has many layers of loanwords and shows traces of long language contact with Hurro-Urartian, Greek and Indo-Iranian.

    The Proto-Armenian sound-laws are varied and eccentric (such as *dw- yielding erk-), and in many cases uncertain. For this reason, Armenian was not immediately recognized as an Indo-European branch in its own right, and was assumed to be simply a very eccentric member of the Iranian languages before H. Hbschmann established its independent character in an 1874 publication.[1]

    Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops are aspirated in Proto-Armenian, a circumstance that gave rise to the Glottalic theory, which postulates that this aspiration may have been sub-phonematic already in PIE. In certain contexts, these aspirated stops are further reduced to w, h or zero in Armenian (PIE *pots, Armenian otn, Greek pous "foot"; PIE treis, Armenian erek, Greek treis "three").

    The reconstruction of Proto-Armenian being very uncertain, there is no general consensus on the date range when it might have been alive.


    The Armenians according to Diakonoff, are then an amalgam of the Hurrians (and Urartians), Luvians and the Mushki. After arriving in its historical territory, Proto-Armenian would appear to have undergone massive influence on part the languages it eventually replaced. Armenian phonology, for instance, appears to have been greatly affected by Urartian, which may suggest a long period of bilingualism.[2]

    Greppin (1991) identifies 16 possible Old Armenian words with a Hurro-Urartian etymology: agarak "field" from Hurrian awari "field"; astem "to reveal one's ancestry" ad Hurrian asti "woman, wife"; art "field" ad Hurrian arde "town"; xnjor "apple" from Hurrian hinz-ore "apple"; kut "grain" from Hurrian kade "barley" (rejected by Diakonoff); maxr "pine" from Hurrian mahir "fir, juniper"; salor "plum" ad Akkadian salluru "plum", suspected of being of Hurrian origin; tarma-jur "spring water" from Hurrian tarmani "source"; arciw "eagle" from Urartian Arsiba, a proper name with a presumed meaning of "eagle"; xarxaler "to destroy" from Urartian harhar-s- "to destroy"; sar "tree" from Urartian sare "garden"; cov "sea" from Urartian sue "sea"; ult "camel from Urartian ultu "camel"; pelem "dig, excavate" from Urartian pile "canal" (rejected by Diakonoff); san "kettle" from Urartian sane "kettle, pot"; sur "sword", from Urartian sure "sword" (considered doubtful by Diakonoff).
    Mushki:

    Mushki

    Quote Originally Posted by Wikipedia on Mushki
    The Mushki (Muki; Georgian: მესხები Meshebi, მუშქები Mushkebi, Meskhetians, Moschia) were an Iron Age people of Anatolia, known from Assyrian sources. They do not appear in Hittite records.[1] Several authors have connected them with the Moschoi (Μόσχοι) of Greek sources and the Georgian tribe of the Meskhi. Josephus Flavius identified the Moschoi with the Biblical Meshech. Two different groups are called Muki in the Assyrian sources (Diakonoff 1984:115), one from the 12th to 9th centuries, located near the confluence of the Arsanias and the Euphrates ("Eastern Mushki"), and the other in the 8th to 7th centuries, located in Cappadocia and Cilicia ("Western Mushki"). Assyrian sources identify the Western Mushki with the Phrygians, while Greek sources clearly distinguish between Phrygians and Moschoi.

    Identification of the Eastern with the Western Mushki is uncertain, but it is of course possible to assume a migration of at least part of the Eastern Mushki to Cilicia in the course of the 10th to 8th centuries, and this possibility has been repeatedly suggested, variously identifying the Mushki as speakers of a Georgian, Armenian or Anatolian idiom. The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture notes that "the Armenians according to Diakonoff, are then an amalgam of the Hurrian (and Urartians), Luvians and the Proto-Armenian Mushki (or Armeno-Phrygians) who carried their IE language eastwards across Anatolia."[2]

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dušan View Post
    It's funny how Armenians use ethnic names for geography. I've never heard of German highlands or Serbian mountains or Italian sea...
    Just for the record, there are a number of ethnic names associated with geographic areas. Here are a few examples: China Sea, Taiwan Strait, English Channel, Swiss Alps, and Scottish Highlands, to name a few.

    The Armenian Highlands has been described with detailed references from the authoritative Encyclopedia Brittanica. Nairi has already clarified that the Modern Day Republic of Turkey has used names, such as Anatolia, to bury and erase the legacy of the Armenian Homeland, in the Armenian Highlands.

    www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/35301

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Highlands

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    Inactive Account Ar-Man's Avatar
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    Firstly wiki sucks generally when you search historical arguments, secondly here's a Mitannean man speaking Armenian, probably with lady of the court of Nefertiti

    [YOUTUBE]ZFeDXXH2O5w[/YOUTUBE]

    Armenians are not at all related with Mushikis, and Diakonoff was simply fulfilling and Azeri Government order, he admitted it in "Diakonoffs Memoirs".

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ar-Man View Post
    Firstly wiki sucks generally when you search historical arguments, secondly here's a Mitannean man speaking Armenian, probably with lady of the court of Nefertiti

    [YOUTUBE]ZFeDXXH2O5w[/YOUTUBE]

    Armenians are not at all related with Mushikis, and Diakonoff was simply fulfilling and Azeri Government order, he admitted it in "Diakonoffs Memoirs".
    You are absolutely right, but irrespective, for the sake of completeness I added it. Now, you have a point of reference. Thank you for clarifying.

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    Hittite inscriptions deciphered in the 1920s by the Swiss scholar Emil Forrer,Hugo Winckler (German archaeologist and historian) and Bedřich Hrozn(Czech orientalist and linguist) testify to the existence of a mountain country, the HAYasa, lying around the Lake of Van/Armenian Highland.

    The suffix sa of Hayasa corresponds to the stan, derivative of Hayasatan (Armenia). Greeks knew about this country (Hayasa) and their writers wrote about Armenians or hayers.
    ...
    The Armenian people derive their self-designative name "Hay" from the Deity - HAY(A), whom they regarded as "the Creator of the Cosmos."
    According to several scholars the name HAY(A) comes from the primordial root name AY or AYA which goes back all the way to the Neolithic Era and the early veneration of the cult of the Mother Goddess that also gave her name to later (masculine) God HAY(A).
    The God HAYA-EA was also venerated throughout Mesopotamia. The earliest surviving inscriptions that mention HAY(A) - the "God of Wisdom" and the "God of Cosmic Waters" are found in the Sumerian inscriptions dated to ca. 2,800 BCE.
    The God EA-HAYA was also later venerated by the Akkadians who knew him under the name of Enki.
    The Eblaic (an ancient city in Syria) inscriptions dated to ca. 2,600 BCE also mention both a Deity and a people by the name of "HAY" who lived in the Armenian Highland.
    The name "Hay" was also used by the Hittites to refer to Armenia and the Armenian people.
    The Hittite inscriptions from around 1,500 BCE record the history of the kingdom of Hayasa (with the root word Hay and the Hittite ending - "asa," connoting a place) situated in Armenian Highland.
    The name Hay also lived on in the name of Hayk, the traditional patriach of the Armenian people, as recorded by a number of medieval historians.
    Hayk was regarded by the Armenian people as the divine offspring of the primordial God of Essence - HAY(A).
    "Father of Armenian history", an Armenian historian (5 th century) Movses Khorenatsi narrates the story of Japeth's grandson (through Torgom), Hayk and his descendents, the Hays (as Armenians call themselves).
    The oldest known ancestors of modern Armenians, the Hayasa-Azzi tribes, also known as Proto-Armenians, were indigenous to the Armenian Highland.
    These tribes formed the Nairi tribal union, which existed until late 13th century BC.
    The legendary forefather of Armenians, Hayk, famous for his battles with Babylonian ruler Bel was one of the Hayasa tribal leaders.
    Հայք Hayk' is the nominative plural in Classical Armenian of հայ (hay) and is also a popular Armenian name.
    The native Armenian name for the country is Hayk'. The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Hayastan,by addition of the Indo-European suffix -stan (land).

    There was a Bronze Age tribe of the Armens (Armans, Armani; Armenian: Արմեններ Armenner, Առամեններ Aṙamenner), either identical to or forming a subset of the Hayasa-Azzi.[11][12] In this case, Armenia would be an ethnonym rather than a toponym

    # ^ Elisabeth Bauer. Armenia: Past and Present (1981), p. 49

    ...............
    ^ Anne Elizabeth Redgate, The Armenians, Wiley-Blackwell, 2000 ISBN 9780631220374, p. 24. The name Hayk' is from the earliest record identified with Armenians from Sumerian inscriptions around 2700 BC, in which the Armenians are referred to as the sons of Haya, after the regional god of the Armenian Highlands.
    .......
    Luigi Villari
    FIRE AND SWORD IN THE CAUCASUS

    "The Land of Ararat"

    "We are now in the true Armenia, the original home of the Haik people.

    [YOUTUBE]_8aDJp7z_dA[/YOUTUBE]
    Armenian DNA Project

    over 300 individuals that have already been tested, revealing that the Armenian branches of DNA are at the root of many branches in Europe.

    Armenians belong to 13 distinct genetic groups that go back tens of thousands of years, while at the same time there is no trace of invaders in their DNA in the last 4000 years

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