(Photographic Supplement)

Photographic Supplement1: Introduction

The photographic supplement which follows has been arranged in such a manner that it may serve both to illustrate the text of Chapters VIII through XII, and to summarize the material of the book as a whole. The basic theses of the book, which these pictures illustrate, are:

(1) The living members of the white race who occupy Europe and the adjacent portions of Asia and Africa owe their initial differentiation to a dual origin.

(2) Some are descended primarily from the hunters and food-gatherers who occupied frigid, sub-glacial lands at the time of the last Würm advance. These hunters and food-gatherers were in turn descendants of Neanderthaloid-sapiens hybrid ancestors.

(3) Others are descended primarily from the purely sapiens Mediterranean peoples, who had never, during the Glacial Period, seriously encountered the cold, and who, in post-glacial times, developed agriculture and animal husbandry as a primary means of subsistence. The Mediterranean peoples began colonizing Europe from the east and south about 3000 B.C.

(4) Still others, and in Europe these form the most numerous group of all, represent clearly differentiated hybrid forms, indicating descent from both of the two stocks mentioned above. These hybrid forms follow well-marked metrical and morphological racial patterns, in accordance with definite biological principles. (See Plate 35 seq.) (5) All mixture does not produce these forms, however, since most if not all of Group A or Palaeolithic phenotypes must from a genetic standpoint represent reëmergences.

(6) The racial map of Europe is never constant; there is always change, due to (a) environmental conditioning, (b) migration, (c) socially and economically conditioned racial selection both in migratory and in geographically static populations. In the following pages the scheme will be to deal first with the descendants of the Late Pleistocene inhabitants of the white racial area, then with those of the Mediterranean race in its various forms, and finally with mixed types combining the characters of A and B.

Anthropometric specifications of the subjects will be found in the tables which follow the plates.

1 The pictures which appear on the following plates have been collected from many sources. All which are not otherwise accredited were taken by the author either in the United States or abroad. The author wishes to express his gratitude to the subjects who permitted him to photograph and measure them, and who stated their willingness to have their pictures appear in this book; he assures them that whatever remarks may appear in reference to their physical characters are concerned with racial and historical matters only; there is no implication of superiority or inferiority, intellectual, moral, biological, or otherwise, in any case. No pictures of convicts or of other persons socially stigmatized have been knowingly used. The sole object of the author in compiling this supplement has been to cover as well as possible the range of racial variation within the white group.

The following individuals, other than the two New Englanders specified as such, the American-born English Gypsy and the Jews whose American birthplaces are specified, were born in the New World of parents from the places mentioned: Plate 5, Fig. 5; 9-4; 9-7; 22-3; 22-4; 23-1; 23-3; 26-4; 27-1; 27-3; 30-4; 32-3; 33-4; 37-2.